The Year in Review .........................1886
Henrietta Helen Kanengeiser was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Austria)
to Isaac and Helen "Henna" nee (Kranczer) Kanengeiser
on a Monday the 15th of March 1886
The Popularity of Hattie's Name in 1886
Hattie was ranked the 33rd most popular name for baby girls.
Henrietta ranked 79th
Jewish Holidays in 1886
Passover begun on April 20th
Passover ended on April 27th
Rosh Hashanah was celebrated on September 30th
Yom Kippur was celebrated on October 9th
Last day of Sukkot was on October 20th
First night of Hanukkah was celebrated on December 22nd
Last night of Hanukkah was celebrated on December 29th
Another Important Lady was Born in 1886
Statue of Liberty- a gift from France to the United States is dedicated on Ellis Island.
Lady Liberty was a welcoming symbol to millions of immigrants such as Hattie was.
Grover Cleveland was elected President. He wed Frances Folsom while in the White House. He was the first president to marry while serving as president
Weather- 1886...... a very cold January, and a very hot Summer
Sports, 1886 Tournament of Roses
First ski club in the United States formed in the State of Minnesota
Field Hockey was invented in England
World Series-St. Louis Browns win the World Series 4-3 over the Chicago White Stockings in Chicago
Important Inventions of 1886-
First A/C Power Plant begins operation in Massachusetts
First gasoline driven car was patented by Karl Benz in Germany
Aluminum processing begins
Maxwell House coffee first marketed
1886-The Year of Soda Pop-John Pemberton a pharmacist invents Coca-Cola first as a medicine, it contained cocaine.
Dr. Pepper and Root Beer were also invented
The dishwasher was invented
The phonograph was invented
The typewriter ribbon was invented
The bicycle and the tricycle were invented
The light bulb was invented. There were only 400 licensed electricians in 1886
The formal Tuxedo was first worn in Tuxedo Park, New York, introducing modern formal wear
Major Companies and Societies of 1886
Avon products first marketed
First Accountants society was established in New York City
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Little Lord Fauntleroy
Last surviving person on record to have been born in the year of 1886 died in the year of 2001
SHOSHANA ANNE SIMON-HATTIE'S GREAT NIECE
I'd love to hear from any relatives out there. I remember Aunt Hattie from my childhood, especially her house in Manhattan with the circular staircase. She, my grandfather Herman and their brother Toni (originally Abel) would have regular meetings, as I recall.
I also have some photographs I could scan in if anybody is interested. Lucille Ball was one of their models before she became famous.
This is Amy, the owner of Hattie-Carnegie.info
I would love to see some of the photographs, that you have of the family?
Might I please also have permission to post them on Hattie's website?
Wow, this is so exciting, Exactly how are you related again?
I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Hattie, her brother Herman (my grandfather) and her other brother Abel, who liked to be
called "Toni" were the three who started Hattie Carnegie. There were a couple of other
sisters, Rose and Frances, whom I remember from my childhood. But it was Hattie who
changed the family name from Kanengeiser to Carnegie because she thought it would
I found the best photo I had and scanned it,once in the frame which turned out a bit blurry and once outside the frame, which is clearer. The original photograph had been scissoredoff to fit an oval frame at some point so I used the mat to cover up the uneven corners.
I think I have more pictures buried someplace and I'll ask my mother what she has. I know
she had a perfume bottle---the golden head---for years, as well as unopened boxes of Hattie
Carnegie Blue and Pink. I don't know if she still has them, though.
I think Toni was the only child born in the US. Their parents' names were Isaac and Hannah.
I have the naturalization papers for my grandmother's family but not for my grandfather's, not
yet at least. And I have their marriage certificate and Ketubah. But I don't have Hattie's.
There should be a marriage certificate on file in NYC, though.
Anyway, you may absolutely use the picture, and any others I find. I rather like this one,
mistress of all she sees. My childhood memories are as big as life anyway.
Is there anything specific I might be able to tell you?
I hope the pictures come out clearly.
Wow, This is exciting!
You say your memories are clear, Could you share your favorites with me Please?
Might you be able to scan the marriage certificate for Isaac and Hannah, and there Ketubah. Would love to see it?.......and have a copy for the family/friends section
Do you have any pictures of Herman?, Isaac or Hannah to share?
Also what do you think of my tribute to Hattie and the rest of your family?
I would love to get an opinion from a family member?
The site will be nine years old in October.
How many children did Herman have?
The Carnegie Family: What You Will NOT Find in the Books
Herman Carnegie took over the role of the family patriarch, after the untimely passing of his father Isaac as was customary of the eldest son in a traditional Jewish household. He had only an eighth grade education, however he had possessed maturity and wisdom well beyond his years. He had quit his formal education in order to bring in another much needed income to the family.
He appreciated where he came from, but he could not help, but hold bitterness against the Austrian government for what they did not only to his personal family, and his other loved ones, but even to those Jews that he did not know personally, or any other groups of individuals that were forced from their homelands or who had died simply because of prejudice and hate.
This sadness remained within Herman into his later years, his granddaughter, Shoshana, recalled that he once told her not to wear her six pointed Star of David to a job interview, when he saw her pick up the beloved gold necklace, the symbol of Judaism, when she inquired as to why she should not wear the beloved heirloom, he told her with a heavy heart, “Because you probably will not get the job”
The Kanengeiser’s felt a need to shed their ethnic identity, not because they wanted to, but they felt they needed tofit in, to grasp a new identity as that of an American Family. Isaac encouraged the children to speak only English in their new homeland. The children would begin to rattle off conversations in their native German, if Isaac or Henna heard them, they would remind them. “English, children, please speak English”
I have shared this story before, Henrietta was arguing with Herman, Isaac would get tired of their constant feuding, he told her, “Henrietta, if you absolutely must fight with your brother, practice your English.”
Henrietta replied, “Papa, I don’t know any of those words in English.”
The children only spoke Yiddish on the Sabbath, at synagogue, or while bowing their heads in prayer. The English language was encouraged at all other times.
The newly named Carnegie children were well ahead of their time when it came to their beliefs. Isaac and Henna were traditionalist, the children were not.
Hattie was an Auntie Mame, according to her niece, Hattie rejected the idea of not only the arranged marriage, but supported early forms of birth control, and did not believe that you had to be married to share intimacy with the one that you loved.
One of Hattie’s best friends on the Lower East Side, had a baby, when she was just sixteen. Hattie had too many dreams to be saddled with an infant at such a young age.
Because Henna had seven babies, all of them were born at home. Hattie was well informed about the birds and the bees......at least when it came to labor and delivery. Any other questions, she had, she would discuss with the other young girls at Macy’s. Her friends were as curious as she, but in that day and age, this topic was not discussed within most families. Most girls of that generation, did not know where babies came from until they had one.
Hattie knew that she loved John, and when their relationship, became serious, she wanted to be prepared. She told John, that she was not ready to have a baby of her own, because she was already busy helping her mother raise her young siblings.
Hattie and John were able to locate a friend who was able to obtain all the latest forms of birth control methods at prices that they could afford.....or they would trade for other items, such as cigarettes.
The year was 1902, This practice was very illegal at the time, The Suffragist Movement was trying to change this, fighting for rights, as basic as Family Planning with Doctor Counseling, but this was still not permitted in most states.
Friends would cover for Hattie and John when they wanted to be “alone” Hattie would tell her parents that she staying at the house of a female friend when in reality she was actually with John.
She would incorrectly state that she HAD love with John, instead of MADE love with John. She was worried the first time, that her father would find out about their intimacy, and he would be furious, her friends laughed and told her that there was no mark on her forehead.
Hattie also sold lingerie at her shop in New York City, and believed that women should always look their best for their husbands or boyfriends.
Toni was also very ahead of his time, His story was that he fell in love, with a woman who belonged to the Roman Catholic Faith. Toni was Jewish, Toni’s girlfriend could not or would not marry him. They wanted more than anything to be together, so they broke another taboo. They moved in together. The couple believed that this would be more accepted in society, then an interfaith marriage. I personally do not know about that or which is more controversial. According to Shoshana, they were very happy, and she adored Toni’s common law marriage wife, and said, that she was a wonderful, loving aunt. Shoshana loved her Uncle Toni very much, and he travelled a lot, and always sent her a postcard, that had “Love Uncle Toni" scrawled on the back, he never forgot to send his niece, a memento of his travels, just to tell her that he was thinking of her and that he loved her.
Shoshana was in complete awe of Aunt Hattie, and referred to her on the phone, when she was talking with me, as her Auntie Mame.
She thought Aunt Hattie was an incredible woman, and very interesting. She used to like to talk to Aunt Hattie and dance around Hattie’s huge house. She loved Aunt Hattie’s circular staircase. Hattie used to comment that she was full of energy, but a lovely little girl.
She would also run around Hattie’s huge maisonette, and play with the toy poodles, Onyx and Opal.
She would try to keep all her niece’s and nephew’s straight about who was who.
She would often say to Shoshana, “You are Herman’s granddaughter,” Shoshana would reply, “Yes, I am…..Aunt Hattie.”
Hattie always had treats in her house for the little ones when they would come to visit. Shoshana recalls that Hattie’s housekeeper, Madeline, whom she loved to chat with fix her and her brother these huge bowls of ice cream.
Shoshana remembers how sad it was that by the time that she turned ten (1954) that her once energetic Aunt Hattie fell very, very ill, and she started to sleep a lot, and was so weak, that she began to spend a lot of time in bed. The diagnosis was stomach cancer, which saddened Shoshana, but because she was still so young, she didn’t understand, just how sick, Hattie was. She would ask her grandfather, “Why was Aunt Hattie always in bed?" Herman would tell her that Aunt Hattie was sick, and needed her rest. Hattie was in total agony, and would sometimes cry out in pain, if you shook the bed. Shoshana would be careful, not to jar the bed, and cause her pain.
Herman, Toni, Rose and Hattie would have regular meetings at Hattie’s apartment in Manhatten. Herman would bring Shoshana and her brother along because Hattie loved to see them, and they cheered her up. Especially when she was sick from the cancer.
I heard that Hattie was so sick, at the end, that if it weren’t for John, Hattie would have spent the remainder of her life in a hospice, but he took care of her personal needs, such as helping her bathe, dress, etc.
Hattie did not want her customers, employees, co-workers, and fans (and yes, she had quite the fan base) to feel sorry for her, so she told the family, not to let on to the press, the extent of her sickness, the family did not agree, and thought if they went public with her illness, the outpouring of love would help her, but they did as she said, and told the press that she was in retirement.
Hattie passed away on the 22nd of February, 1956. Shoshana was twelve years old.
Back to Herman, Shoshana’s grandfather, he married a beautiful girl from the Lower East Side, her name was Anne. Anne was ten to twelve years, Herman’s Junior. Herman was in his late 30’s when he married his young bride on Christmas Eve of 1921. They married in Atlantic City. Shoshana’s mother Marilyn was born, three years later, in 1924, and their younger daughter, Imogene was born in 1930. They kept Herman young.
Herman was very gifted and highly intelligent and responsible. The young man who had to drop out of school after eighth grade, went back later, and got his GED, his Citizenship, and went on to become a Certified Public Accountant, remembering and holding true what his parents taught him about the importance of an education. He also loved crossword puzzles, and could complete an entire puzzle.
Herman thought that a young Lucille Ball was highly gifted. Like the rest of America. Herman became her biggest fan, saw all her movies, and remembered her from when she was just a baby of seventeen.
One time, Lucille was swinging her purse. Herman asked, “Did my sister fire you yet again?”
She answered, “That is right, Herman.” and Lucille added with a laugh, “I will see you tomorrow.”
Easygoing, Herman, Could not fathom his sister’s temper. Herman passed away from cancer in the early 1970’s when Shoshana was in her early to mid 30’s.
Shoshana and her husband have three grown children.......and they live in California.
Her mother, Marilyn and Aunt Imogene. (Herman's daughters, Hattie's nieces) are still alive and well and are in their mid eighties.
Thank you to Shoshana for sharing her memories of her family with this website.
With Love and Appreciation
HATTIE'S EARLY YEARS
"Auntie"Hattie was an Auntie Mame type according to
her niece, Shoshana
Shoshana's Personal Family Album.
She looked beautiful in this next photograph
Perhaps Miss Hattie had the photograph below taken for John
Her beloved pearls were a gift from John
The Kanengeiser (Carnegie) Children
Parents Helen Legal Name (Hannah) Jewish Name (Kranczer) and Isaac
2. Henrietta (Hattie)- born 1886
3. Abel (Toni)
* Herman, Toni, and Rose worked for Hattie Carnegie, Inc.
The Zanft Children
1.John (1883) Major -After World War I
Below Anne and Herman Carnegie:
Shoshana's Grandmother, Anne, with her Grandfather, Herman
Notice the eyes especially: Herman and Hattie were definitely siblings
On their Wedding Day, on December 24th 1921
Shoshana adored her grandparents.and Herman and Hattie were the closest of all the siblings, had a fierce rivalry, but a deep love and appreciation for one another. Because they were the two eldest, and worked hard to keep the family safe and secure. Herman was the patriarch upon Isaac's death.
Thank you to Shoshana for sharing her personal photographs with this website. WHAT AN HONOR!
They were still a cute couple in their later years.
Very Much in Love!
Miami, Florida circa, late 1960's early 1970's
Ketubah (Jewish Marriage Contract of Anne (Anna) Lax and Herman Carnegie Married Christmas Eve 1921
Another View of the Ketubah of Anne (Anna) Lax and Herman Carnegie written in Hebrew-Christmas Eve 1921
English Translation with the Signatures of Anne and Herman. Per the Ketubah......I wish that
Christians/Catholics such as myself had something similar. IT IS VERY BEAUTIFUL!
With all the signatures- Including the Rabbi and the Witnesses
VERY SPECIAL PIN-FROM SHOSHANA (and HATTIE) I WILL TREASURE IT FOREVER
Shoshana and I are not certain if Hattie is wearing that EXACT LEAF BROOCH! It very well could be though.
There were two in the set Shoshana has one.......
I have the other.
Hattie was known to wear her own clothing and jewelry in the advertisements that she herself appeared in
Thank you Shoshana!!!!
THANK YOU/MAZEL TOV SHOSHANA! THESE ITEMS HAVE A SPECIAL PLACE IN MY COLLECTION 5/12/2012
HELEN was Legal Name HANNAH was her Jewish Name and ISAAC- Hattie's Parents-
Hattie always had a lot of love and respect for her mother. Helen (Hannah) Kranzer was born in the early 1860’s in the Austrian countryside. Hannah was very proud that she could read and write because the opportunity for education was rare for Jews in the 1860s. Most Jews were not permitted to go to school, so Hannah thought that she was fortunate to have been able to attend one.
She married a tailor, Isaac Kanengeiser by the traditional marriage/matchmaker arrangement in the early 1880’s The couple’s first child, a son was born around 1883-84. Their second child, a daughter, was born two to three years later in 1886. The couple named her Henrietta Helen, so she was was not only her namesake, she just happened to have blue eyes, and curly blonde hair.
Hattie’s father was a tailor, but the family lived in severe poverty due to the restrictions placed on individuals of the Jewish faith. He was only able to find employment in certain neighborhoods, so to supplement the family income he utilized his artistic talent and sold some of his paintings and artwork. Hattie’s mother loved gardening and baking and sold some of their vegetables and pies to the local markets. She loved to cook and continued to make traditional Austrian dishes for her family when they emigrated to New York. Hattie’s mother was like the majority of women from her generation, and her primary role was taking care of the home and the family. When the family suffered a terrible fire, there was no choice, but to leave Austria, and Hannah supported her husband’s decision.
They chose New York as their destination because there were many employment opportunities available in the garment industry. They settled in a Jewish neighborhood on the Lower East Side. It was a poverty stricken neighborhood, but on a positive note many other families settled there from Austria, so they had the best of both worlds. The Kanengeiser children would be immersed in their heritage, yet at the same time they would become Americanized and learn to love their adopted country and appreciate the bright future America would offer them.
Soon after settling in New York, Hattie’s mother was informed that they would soon be expecting another baby. The thought of having another baby to feed worried them, but they considered her a blessing from God and were very pleased that their baby girl was an American citizen by birth as it made them all more American.
America was a place that the Kanengeiser family grew to love with all their hearts, but the cultural differences were very obvious. Women’s suffrage was in it’s infancy when the family settled here. This movement inspired Hattie and shocked her mother. Young Henrietta couldn't believe all the freedom that women were fighting for in the United States of America. She didn’t really understand the movement in the beginning nor what it was all about. She thought that she now had freedom, but soon found out that if she became a citizen she wouldn’t have the basic right to vote. Henrietta was influenced by her friends, and joined the Women’s Rights Movement.
Miss Henrietta had decided she wanted a career, and knew she wanted a career since she was a little girl modeling her mother’s hats in the mirror or selling that yard of blue velvet that she draped on her head and pinned together. Macy’s Department Store held that same philosophy. They were the first department store to offer women managerial positions and advancement. When the department store advanced her that first managers job. Hattie could hardly contain her excitement. Hattie’s mother felt so guilty that her daughter had to leave school at such a young age and this advancement through Macy’s brought her so much happiness that she encouraged and applauded her daughter’s apparent work ethic, but didn’t think it would lead anywhere. What did it really matter? She would be married in a few years, and her career would be a distant memory.
Hannah wasn’t very pleased though when Hattie began smoking, Hattie’s mother used to get upset when she saw her lighting a cigarette. In her mother's opinion that behavior was considered very unladylike. If her mother saw her smoking a cigarette, she would have to put it out immediately by telling her, “Henrietta that isn’t very ladylike", and offered her a disapproving look. Hattie thought this was very unfair. Her mother said nothing when her brothers smoked. Although she didn't approve of Hattie’s new habit of smoking, Hattie’s mother was the lenient parent and was more open to change. She didn't mind when Henrietta wanted to wear makeup. All the girls employed at Macy’s wore makeup. Hattie bought some with her paycheck. When her mother spotted her putting it on, she thought that she was going to be in trouble, but to her surprise, her mother loved the different shades and colors of cosmetics. She thought that it looked nice. Hannah also thought it was a positive experience when Hattie began to date, and actually talked Hattie’s strict father into allowing her to date because Hannah thought it was a way for her to make some friends. Marriages were arranged, she felt that Hattie understood about the marriage contact and her impending arrangement. Helen viewed dating as socialization and it didn’t even cross her mind that Hattie would meet someone and actually fall in love.
Hattie’s parents held affection for each other. Hattie always believed, despite the fact her parents marriage was arranged by a matchmaker, that they really loved each other. They had seven children out of their union. Hattie’s mother was deeply saddened and heartbroken when Hattie’s father passed away. She was so heartbroken that Hattie was concerned that her mother would become sick. Hattie’s best friend, Alma Gluck, came to the rescue and often stopped by to cheer up her mother by singing opera songs. When Alma Gluck became a famous opera singer and Helen Kanengeiser was her most avid fan and some of her earliest concerts were in the apartment building where Hattie grew up.
Hattie kept her promise to her father that she would always take care of her mother and siblings. As soon as she made enough money, she moved them out of the rat infested tenements to a beautiful building in a very nice neighborhood.
Hannah was very proud of Hattie when she achieved her own business. She was absolutely amazed when Hattie first took her to see the shop. She just couldn’t believe this was her daughter’s shop. When Hattie had first started out, and opened up an account she was spending money like it was water and her mother was very worried. “Henrietta, how in the world are you going to pay for that?” Hattie was young and foolish at the time, and it didn’t take her long to realize that her mother was right. She didn’t know how she was going to pay for everything. She decided to that she should be more careful. Because of her mother’s advice, Hattie didn’t suffer anymore sleepless nights due to foolish spending. When Hattie went on overseas trips or to fashion related events, she often invited her mother to travel with her.
When Hattie married her teenage sweetheart John Zanft in 1928, Hannah was very happy. She always liked John, if she didn’t know at the time that they were an item, the secret was now known. Hattie’s mother was the one who encouraged them to date in the first place and now they were together united in marriage. Hattie was the only daughter that ended up in an arranged marriage because Hannah’s opinions about marriage based on love had changed overtime. Hattie had married only to please her father and her first marriage ended in divorce, so Hannah thought it was wonderful when her younger daughters were able to find happiness and a future with the men that they loved. She was equally happy when Hattie rekindled the flame with John Zanft. When Hattie changed her name legally to Carnegie, the rest of the family did the same.
Helen never understood her daughter’s fame because she owned a dress shop. All she knew was that she loved her.
A TRIBUTE TO HATTIE’S FATHER
ISAAC KANENGEISER "Carnegie"
The popular film Fiddler of the Roof could easily have been a biographical account about Isaac Kanengeiser’s outlook on tradition and cultural beliefs. He held them dear to his heart much like Tevye, the father in the film. Like Tevye, Isaac was conflicted because his beloved daughter Henrietta had always challenged him to change. Isaac was a traditionalist and he was always puzzled by the fact that he raised a daughter who was such a free thinker.
Isaac Kanengeiser was born in the early 1860’s in the Austrian countryside. He was trained as a tailor early in his teens and found employment in a men’s clothing store. Isaac always looked forward to every wedding in the neighborhood because he knew that he would be bringing home more money during that particular week. Isaac wanted more than anything to own his own business, but he was well aware that the Austrian government had made it next to impossible for a Jewish man to own a business, so sadly this dream remained an unreachable goal and Isaac resigned himself to working for other people.
In the early 1880’s, a neighborhood matchmaker located him a bride. She was a pretty blonde named Helen (Hannah) Kranzer. After the formal arrangement was finalized, all parties involved agreed to the terms that were set forth. The young couple were married in a traditional Jewish ceremony and settled down to start a family.
The first child was a son and two years later when Helen found out that she was expecting a second child. They hoped and prayed that this time God would bless them with a girl. Their wish was granted when Henrietta was born on March 15th, 1886.
Like most little girls, Henrietta adored her father. When Henrietta was around five years old. She started to take an interest in her father’s profession because his job often required him often to complete work at home. She would ask her father questions about tailoring and he would answer her, however she could not understand why her father only made boring men’s suits. She once told him she thought it would be much nicer to make pretty dresses because the women of the town needed a dress shop. In a favorite childhood memory. Hattie had recalled that one year for her birthday her father had surprised her by making her and her rag doll matching pink dresses.
Isaac worked for a few more years at the shop but he became increasingly discouraged because he was working long hours but was still struggling to put bread on the table. Isaac was concerned about his family and didn’t know what to do, because he didn’t want to uproot his family from the only life they knew. All this would change when the family suffered a terrible fire. Thankfully the family got out safely, but the family home burned to the ground and most of the family’s personal belongings were destroyed. Isaac and Hannah knew that the chances of rebuilding their lives in Austria were slim at best. If it was just the two of them they would have taken their chances and remained in Austria, but they had six children to consider. It was decided the only choice they had now was to try and begin a new life in the United States of America. After consulting with some friends they had chosen to emigrate to New York City within a neighborhood practically founded by Jewish immigrants. They were happy to learn their children would not lose their cultural identity. This neighborhood was founded around the garment industry and was home to many tailors and their families. Isaac and Hannah were now looking forward to the voyage to America. Henrietta didn’t feel the same way and cried that she did no want to leave Austria. Henrietta’s father told her that she had no choice in the matter, that he understood it would be difficult for her and her brothers and sisters, but they would all adjust over time. The Kanengeiser family said their tearful goodbyes to their family and friends. They didn't realize at the time, but because of the horrors of the holocaust that would take place years later, it would sadly be a final goodbye for most of the extended family.
The children were told only to bring what was absolutely necessary with them. Isaac and Hannah had to scrape together whatever savings they had to pay the fare across the ocean for eight passengers and they could not afford the cost for cargo. They also sold a few of the treasured belongings that they had managed to save before the home burned. The young girl who would grow up to be one of the greatest names in the world of fashion left Austria with only three dresses. Henrietta thought the voyage over was an adventure. She had never been out of Austria and now she was traveling across the ocean on a huge ship. Henrietta was instructed to watch her younger brothers and sisters and was told by her father not to bother other passengers. When Hattie went up to the deck she started conversations with the stewards and other passengers. She spotted a few American passengers and the inquisitive young girl began to ask questions, in broken English, about what America was like. The passengers thought she was adorable but Henrietta’s parents were very embarassed.
A short time after the emigration, Isaac located employment in the garment industry. Henrietta was only twelve years old when she dropped out of school to help bring in additional income for her family. While her older brother found work doing manual labor, Henrietta eventually obtained a job with Macy’s Department Store. Isaac was so proud of his daughter finding a job with such an exclusive world renowned department store. He felt guilty that Henrietta had to leave school at such a young age. Even though her formal education ceased, Isaac and Hannah made Henrietta study English and American history for a couple of hours each evening. She often drifted off to sleep with a book in her hand. She was becoming more interested in fashion and the business world, and asked her father what he thought about women owning their own business. Isaac told his daughter not to worry herself about the business world, because in only a few short years, she would be married with a family of her own. Isaac was also concerned that encouraging Henrietta to dream about owning her own business would only set her up for disappointment.
Because she was now a young teenager, Isaac and Hannah had begun the search for a suitable husband for Henrietta. It was truly an act of parental love, an important decision which was never to be taken lightly. Isaac felt the need to locate the perfect husband for his eldest daughter. Not only did tradition dictate that he select a future husband for his daughter by the time she reached her teen years, he wanted someone to always take care of and provide a comfortable life for his baby girl. Henrietta disagreed with her father. She was becoming more Americanized. She thought that she should be allowed to date because all the girls at Macy’s dated and talked about their boyfriends. Isaac was very upset by his daughter’s defiance regarding tradition, but his opinion was softened by Hannah who thought that dating would be a positive experience for their young daughter. Socialization would help her adjust to a new life in a new country and she seemed to understand their opinions about traditional values. Hannah believed she would not only honor her eventual arrangement, but would also grow to love the young man they selected for her. Both Hannah and Isaac agreed that Henrietta was too young to be rushed into the marriage because she was still just a young teenager. They reluctantly told her that she had their permission to date.
Henrietta met a young American by the name of John Zanft while employed as a salesgirl at Macy’s Department Store. She eventually brought John home to meet the family introducing the young man as her friend John Zanft. Henrietta was falling in love with John, but her father had recently announced that he had selected the young man who was to be her future husband. He was half English, half Austrian and his name was Ferdinand Flesichman. Even though it was morally wrong, because she was now engaged, Henrietta was so deeply in love that she continued to sneak around to be with John. Henrietta and John's friends supported the relationship and helped cover for the couple.
There was much sickness throughout the rat infested tenements. Isaac Kanengeiser fell ill and died suddenly. Henrietta cried and cried because her beloved Papa was now gone. John enlisted in the Military. Henrietta’s mother had just given birth to another baby. Henrietta could not leave her mother now to travel far away with a military man. She promised her father she would care for her mother and younger siblings, and her mother needed her more than ever now.
Henrietta walked down the aisle with Ferdinand. There wasn’t any doubt in her mind that her parents most definitely loved each other, maybe the marriage would be a success. Possibly she could share the same love with Ferdinand one day. The marriage would also honor her father’s final wish for her. Ferdinand was very kind to her just like he promised her father he would be, but the couple would never grow to attain the love her parents shared and would eventually divorce on good terms. The two, nonetheless, had developed a strong friendship. Hattie never held any bitterness towards Ferdinand, and she always cared for him. Ferdinand was happy for Hattie when she rekindled her romance with John Zanft.
In 1909, Hattie bought her first dress shop. She had succeeded in making her dream come true. She couldn’t help but recall it was also her father’s dream to have a business of his own. She felt a sense of pride following in his footsteps and when asked who her mentors were. Hattie’s father Isaac was always at the very top of her list. Her father wanted to give his children a better life in America. At the same time he had saved their lives, because if they had remained in Austria they would have suffered and died in the concentration camps of the Second World War.
Hattie’s father also had a talent for art. His favorite hobby was painting. He sold his paintings for extra income, but also painted portraits to brighten up their tenement apartment. Hattie had several of her father’s paintings proudly displayed in her living room and they were her prized possessions.
Hattie Carnegie made this statement about her parents in a November 1945 Life Magazine interview:
“Over forty years ago, my parents brought us to America to give us a better life. I am determined to make them proud.”
This article from 1949 is very good, as it goes more into Hattie's life. The article asks Hattie some questions about her family, who she looked like, and who she took after. Hattie replied that she looked like her mother because they were both really tiny with light blonde hair and blue eyes, and she took after her father. Her father was a tailor, and that first led to her interest in the clothing industry. She chose ultimately to follow in the footsteps of her father, whom she adored. Her father always wanted his own business, but was never able to achieve that as Hattie did. Little Henrietta took great interest in her father's job from a very early age, and always wanted to help him. When she was really young, he used to take her to work with him because she enjoyed helping out and because she pleaded many times.
She just couldn't understand why her father always made boring men's suits. Always the little lady, she asked her dad,
"Where are all the pretty dresses?" Mr. Kanengeiser tried to explain to his daughter,
"Henrietta, This is a men’s clothing store."
With a sad look, she blurted out, "Papa, That's not fair. Women need a shop too,I wish that you could make me a pretty dress", she used to say to her father, "then I could learn to make my dolly pretty dresses".
Little Henrietta had a beloved rag doll that she carried with her everywhere. She didn't have many toys, but Hattie and that doll were inseparable.
When she was six that she had two gifts a big present and a little present.
She opened up the big gift first and it was a beautiful pink dress that her father made for her.
She was so very happy, she wanted to go try it on immediately that she was racing around the house announcing to any one who would listen that her father made her a dress.
Her parents actually had to remind her that she had another gift to open. When she opened the second gift, it was a miniature dress identical to the one she had just gotten for her beloved doll. Henrietta was so pleased that her doll had a matching dress and they could look alike.
As she got older Hattie realized, appreciated, and never forgot, how much thought and love went into her special birthday gift.
Shortly after that the seventh little Kanengeiser was born, Hattie's baby sister, Celia. Isaac Kanengeiser sadly passed away. Celia was the only one of the Kanengeiser children to be a United States citizen by birth,
Hattie never stated what her father died from. It is very possible that it was from a tenement borne illness because, through my research, I discovered the tenement houses that housed the "Poorest of the Poor" were disease ridden. They suffered bad living conditions which caused many people to become very sick and many people died. It wasn't till the 1930's when living conditions begun to improve in the tenements, and landlords were starting to be held accountable for forcing people to live in squalor. This probably led to Hattie's fathers early demise.
Hattie stated that shortly after the youngest Kanengeiser was born, that her beloved father left this world for a much better place.
Henrietta, Her family, New York City Tenements
This crowded living space of the New York tenements often upset Henrietta. She was a young girl coming of age. Living in a tenement apartment with her six siblings and her parents offered little privacy.
The rooms in their tenement apartment were divided by doors as opposed to hallways. This did not please Helen nor Isaac because their children especially temperamental Henrietta had a tendency to slam the doors when frustrated by the lack of privacy.
Electricity was invented at the turn of the century, but like many families in their neighborhood. The Kanengeiser family utilized kerosene lanterns for light and heat. They had an indoor flushing toilet, but no bathtub, so they went to a bathhouse to bathe.
Henrietta's youngest sister Celia was born at the turn of the century in the tenement apartment, so more than likely when she was born all the neighbors knew of the blessed event because the walls were paper thin and there wasn’t any soundproofing.
Around the time of Celia’s birth, Hattie was hired by Macy’s Department Store. I can’t even imagine the state of shock, she must have been in when she first walked into Macy’s Department Store. Working in the world famous department store by day, and returning to the drab and dark tenements each evening.
Celia was the baby of the family. In many ways she was more fortunate than her sister Henrietta. She was able and encouraged to receive an education, like the younger Kanengeiser siblings. She had more opportunities than the older members of the family. She was even given a job within her sister’s already established company when she completed school.
Hattie never resented the fact that her younger siblings had it easier. She wanted them to have as many opportunities as possible in life.
In many ways though, she knew that she had blessings they didn’t because the younger children didn’t have a chance to grow up with the father that she adored. Hattie’s father Isaac’s passed away, when she was a teenager.
Hattie’s older brother Herman assumed responsibility for the family upon Isaac’s death. He was beloved and respected by all his siblings, and was a father figure to the younger ones.Celia even named her son in honor of her brother. Hattie who had always considered Herman her ultimate rival while they were growing up gained a new respect for her brother after her father’s passing.
Hattie was also loved and appreciated by her younger brothers and sisters. When Hattie decided to change her name legally to Carnegie. The rest of the family followed her lead. Hattie’s sisters, who desired to keep the name "Carnegie" within the family after they married and had families of their own, gave their children the middle name of "Carnegie".
When Henrietta was about five years old, her mother gave birth to her little sister, Frances.
Her mother was busy tending to the baby,. Henrietta had two brothers and wanted a baby sister and was overjoyed when the stork finally brought her a sister, and neglected her doll to hold and rock the new baby, but now she was a little jealous of the new baby girl who had arrived, and kept saying,
“Mama, Mama,” she vied for her mother’s attention.
Helen was getting flustered and she told Henrietta that she had to take care of the new baby, and noticed Henrietta’s rag doll sitting on a nearby chair, attempted to counteract her jealousy and to instill a sense of responsibility for another.
“Look at Johanna,” she told Henrietta, “she is crying for her Mama too” Henrietta had named her doll, Johanna in honor of the author who wrote her favorite book, Heidi, a book, that her mother often read to her was ironically written the same year she was born and had taken place in the Alps.
Henrietta remarked, “Johanna is sleepy, she needs to take a nap, she needs a cradle, Mama.”
Hannah emptied a nearby wicker basket, and gave her a pillow case and a tiny cloth. "Here is a blanket and cradle for her." she said kindly. Henrietta kissed her mother in appreciation and ran outside to play with her friend who had knocked on the door. Basket and baby in hand.
A little while later, Hannah looked outside as she rocked the littlest Kanengeiser to sleep. she noticed the two girls were running around outside and playing happily in the tall grass.
Isaac arrived home, and Henrietta was still outside playing, she was so busy searching for something in the grass that she didn’t acknowledge her Papa, which was rare because she loved it when he came home early.
After not receiving his usual enthusiastic greeting Isaac inquired as to what his daughter was looking for that was so interesting?
Hannah explained that she had reminded Henrietta that she to was a little mother and her dolly needed her, just as the new baby needed them.
Isaac told his wife that Henrietta probably lost her doll because she was looking for something outside.
Hannah heard as the girls repeatedly commented “You are so pretty.” They were laughing, and pleading, "Come Here, come here."
Oh they are just playing……She must be talking to that doll.
There was a loud scream, and Mr. and Mrs. Kanengeiser ran out the door and were met by Henrietta and her friend. Henrietta explained through tears that she was bitten by a bright green snake. Hannah panicked because she saw blood and she got a bandage, applied pressure, attempted to stop the bleeding. While the other little girl went to get her mother. Hannah was frightened, but she tried to maintain composure as to not frighten Henrietta and whispered "Isaac, she was bitten. Do you think it's poisonous?"
Isaac inspected the bite and he didn’t think that the snake was the poisonous kind to worry about based upon the look of the bite, but he thought that maybe he should cover the wound, so it wouldn’t get dirty, and would heal faster.
When the other girls parents arrived to assist in holding Henrietta down. Mr. and Mrs. Kanengeiser treated the tiny, but painful puncture wound on their eldest daughter without the benefit of an anesthetic Henrietta screamed and cried when her mother put a home remedy on the puncture wound The procedure stung and hurt, Mother and daughter both cried.
When the wound was properly cleaned and treated Isaac placed a bandage on her leg and hugged his beloved daughter.. They made her stay in bed for a couple of days to make sure that she didn’t develop a fever and within three days, she was running and playing in the Austrian countryside again, but she left those pretty green grass snakes alone.
"Green grass snakes usually don’t bite unless they think that a little girl will try to hurt them." Henrietta was warned not to try and bring one home. "Remember that God wants snakes to live outdoors, not inside a house or especially not inside a basket." Isaac instructed.
A cute story, when Henrietta first started school back in Austria. Henrietta’s parents stressed the importance of an education to her from the time that she was old enough to understand. She couldn’t wait for school to officially begin. She had talked about it for weeks. She bragged confidently about how she was going to go to school so that she could learn and become smart.
She could already read a few words, that her mother Helen had taught her and she could write her name, which was quite the accomplishment for a little girl whose name was Henrietta Kanengeiser.
The first day of school, Little Henrietta looked adorable. Her mother had tied ribbons in her blonde curls that matched with the new dress that she was wearing especially for this important milestone. Henrietta's brother Herman was a veteran entering his third year of school.
Isaac decided to be late to work on this day so he could escort his two eldest children to school. Henrietta chattered non-stop about school on the short walk there. When she arrived she hugged her Papa goodbye, running in the direction of her brother who was way ahead of her, and already in the school house, but she didn't quite make it up the stairs before she got cold feet and trailed her father to work.
Her father spotted her out of the corner of his eye and asked her what was wrong. Henrietta answered that she was scared, and since she could already read and write her name, so she didn't need to go to school. She thought she could help her Papa instead.
He told her she had to go to school because she was just a little girl, her blue eye filled with tears.
Isaac told her she shouldn't be scared because her big brother was in school with her.
He took her by the hand and walked back in the direction of the school, when they arrived. She asked her father if she couldn't go to work with him, she could stay home and help her Mama take care of the babies.
Isaac knew it was time to get tough when he yelled at his daughter, "Henrietta, Go into that school now!" Isaac hid from her. He watched her for a few minutes before going off to work.
This is Herman in his Later Years
This is Anne (Herman's Wife) in her Later Years- Hattie's Sister in law
SHOSHANA SIMON-HATTIE'S GREAT NIECE-HERMAN'S GRANDDAUGHTER
BONNIE RADDING-HAYMSOM Hattie's Great-Niece- FRANCES GRANDDAUGTHER
I was very thrilled to hear from another relative of Hattie Carnegie. It always makes me very happy and proud, because I take so much pride in this site.
Bonnie Radding-Haymson was born on July 24, 1947. Bonnie was the granddaughter of Joseph and Frances-Carnegie Barnett. Frances was the younger sister of Hattie Carnegie.
Frances fell in love and married a gentlemen by the name of Joseph Barnett. Joseph ironically worked in the garment industry as well. They met at a youth social club
Frances and Joseph were blessed with two daughters, Edith Barnett and Hattie Barnett who was called "Peggy" because she was named in honor of her aunt, Hattie Carnegie.
Bonnie has told me, that she has some photographs of her mother, Edith that were published in the newspaper, because Edith worked as a model, for her Aunt Hattie, during her younger years. Bonnie's mother stated that Aunt Hattie could be difficult at times to work for because she was a perfectionist and she could have a fiery temper.
Bonnie remembered that Great Aunt Hattie had two black standard poodles, and would bring them with her when she went to visit Frances at her apartment on Riverside Drive. Bonnie was very little at the time, and was intriged by the very large dogs who were bigger than her tiny aunt.
Although she has some memories of visiting her aunt's showroom. She wishes that she could have been born a generation earlier, so that she could have gotten to know her Great Aunt Hattie, a little better, and possibly had the chance to work with and learn from her amazing aunt. Possbly if she had been born about fifteen to twenty years before she was, she could have saved the family business. Bonnie was just eight years old when Hattie died, so at the time she didn't realize the scope of her aunt's fame.
Bonnie was very, very close to her grandmother, Frances and her aunt, Celia.
Frances and Celia were the closest of the sisters. They shared a very special bond. . The sister's saw or spoke with one another almost every day.
Hattie was closer to both of her brothers than she was to any of her sisters, especially to her brother, Herman probably because they were the eldest and had similar family responsibilites, due to the unfortunate demise of their beloved father Isaac. Hattie always entrusted her brother, Herman with many issues that were important to her. Herman was named as the executor of Hattie's, Last Will and Testament.
I asked Bonnie, if she remembered her great-grandmother, Helen. Bonnie sent back a reply stating that she hasn't any personal memories of Helen, however she was able to share some information with me.
Helen was very beautiful, and the family absoluted adored her, especially her grandchildren who were charmed by her. Her nickname was "Hannah", In fact it was because of Henna, that Hattie's father insisted that she be named Henrietta Helen.
The marriage of Hannah and Isaac was arranged by the traditional matchmaker, but in later years, Hattie often told interviewers, that she could see that her parents truly loved each other, and it was a match made in Heaven because they were perfect for each other, and Hannah never truly got over the loss of Isaac.
With great affection everybody referred to Henna, as "Shena Hannah" Shena is the Yiddish word for beautiful. If she really was Shena, Isaac must have been quite happy that she was chosen as his match, and apparently Hannah was shena on the inside too, because her entire family thought that she was a treasure.
Bonnie was pleased to have been named after Henna too, As Bonnie explained to me, Shena is the Yiddish translation for beautiful, and Bonnie is the Scottish translation for beautiful.
I also inquired if Bonnie had some photographs of Frances and possibly Hannah that she could share and she said, that she does have photographs of family members, some may actually be duplicates or she would see if she could get some originals copied for me onto a disc or a cd-rom. That would be a wonderful and treasured addition to this tribute site.
Bonnie also wanted me to pass along, that she would love to talk with or meet other living family members who visit this site. Please let me know, if you would like to contact Bonnie and I will forward your email on to her.
Thank you very much, Bonnie, for allowing me to share your story.
Bonnie's additions and/or corrections to my original write-up.
Amy: Here are the corrections to your write up of my history of Hattie Carnegie:
Frances Carnegie met Joseph Barnett at a youth social club on the lower east side of New York city around 1908. I am not sure who introduced them. They were married in 1910. I mistakenly said that her daughter, Peggy, was originally named Hattie. It was Henrietta Barnett. Hattie's mother name was " Hannah" as I stated before. The English translation of that is Hannah or Ann. I am not sure where Helen comes from. She was very beautiful in her youth, but in the pictures I have of her as an older grandmother, she is no longer a beauty.I am going through many photos that have been stored away for quite some time and will send you some in the near future. We will be away for several weeks, so I probably will not be able to get them to you before mid Sept.
I am delighted with the time and effort that you have put into reseaching Hattie Carnegie. I too, believe that she has not gotten the attention that she deserve in the fashion hisotry of the USA. She was truly a remarkable person who personified the American dream.
I think I told you that I was born in 1947 and just had my 60th birthday. Edith, my mother, died in 1973 at the age of 49. Frances and Joseph died in the late 1970's. Joseph predeceased Frances. I will be married this coming Dec. for 39 years to Franklin Haymson. We have two children, both married. My daughter Nicolle Kaufmann, has two children and my son, Adam Haymson, has none at this time. We all live in Westchester County, New York. My husband and I are both still working. We sell real estate. This is a career we came to later in our working years. My previous background has been in fashion and retailing.
Keep up the good work. If I can think of more facts I will let you know.
Amy: I was correct the first time that Peggy Carnegie, daughter of Frances, was originally Hattie Barnett. She also had a daughter, Jacqueline Klotz, my cousin. The exact date of Frances' death was July 5, 1977. Joseph died in 1975.
Hope that I have not confused you.
ROSE CARNEGIE APISDORF- MOTHER OF CLAIRE CARNEGIE-APISDORF- GRANDSON MICHAEL LAUX-GREAT NEPHEW OF HATTIE CARNEGIE
I am very impressed with the amount of work that you have done creating this website. I have some additional information for you.
My mother was Claire Carnegie-Apisdorf She was the daughter of Rose Carnegie-Apisdorf and Bernhard Apisdorf. She had two brothers, Irving and Harold. Both Claire and Irving worked for Hattie Carnegie. Irving was in charge of the jewelry and Claire the millinery (hats). Harold was a lawyer who practiced in New York City, but lived in Greenwich, CT.
Irving Apisdorf had two children, Carol and Suzanne
Harold had one, Peter.
Peter surmounted a serious automobile accident that caused a brain injury, but is married has a wonderful family and is a physicians assistant helping poor people in Mexico.
Let me know If I can be of any further assistance.
Michael A. Laux
I received some addition information from Rose's side of the family, via her great granddaughter,
Oh my god! Hello Amy! :)
Okay so a little introduction:
Well indeed, I am related to Rose's side of the family. My dad is Peter Joseph Apisdorf; and he came to Mexico to be a doctor and help people in need (as you may already know). He was working at one of the most important hospitals in Mexico city, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, where he met my mother, Georgina, she was the head of the administration of the gastroenterology department. My dad is the only child of Harold C. Apisdorf with Judy Apisdorf or Sherr (her maiden name). My dad, just had two children, my older brother, Pedro Haroldo Apisdorf, and me, Wendy Mariam Apisdorf. We were both born and raised in sunny Mexico but we are still American citizens.
Okay, first of all I think I owe you an apology. I thought I had lost this email forever. I had created this account so that my dad and me could maybe reconnect with a little bit about family history. He is getting old, and about three years ago he had a very bad fall where he broke his hip, and so he had to have surgery where the doctors installed a plaque of aluminum, I believe (but I am not quite sure, they might have used another material, I just can't remember which type of metal it was) along with several nails so that the bones would stick and heal together. In surgery he had a cardiopulmonary arrest, so there was a moment where we thought we would loose him. He was in a wheelchair for several months, but thank god he has gotten better and now he is using a walker to walk, but he is still far from walking normally, like he used to since it takes so much strain for his muscles and hips to move. But we hope that in time everything will heal properly.
Anyways, I created this email account because my dad isn't really a fan of technology and so for that reason he doesn't have an email of his own. Aside of that I am also really interested in getting to know more about my distant relatives and about my surname which is quite peculiar. I started to develop this interest since a school project where we had to make a family tree and I could only do it up to a certain point, but now thanks to the internet I think I have uncovered a little bit more information. Also, as I am seeing that my parents are getting older, I want to keepsake of their memories before they are gone for good, I believe it is important to get to know them and to share the memories with them while we have them here :) So I thought that by creating this email it would be easier for me to communicate with you and just have access to all the info in one account where my dad and me could talk to you and connect with each other.
I created the account about the time that my dad fell. Well, actually now that I am checking the time stamps it was a few moths after. He fell in January of 2013 and the account was created in October of 2013. At the time I believe I must have been in 8th grade. Right now I am 16 years old and in high school. I discovered your website around that time, but with everything that has been going on with our lives I haven't had time to keep up or follow up with updates or extra information you have added. I just checked out your website again, for the first time in a very long time.
First and foremost, I just want to say your website is amazing and the amount of work you have put into it is truly mesmerizing. If only there were more people like you on the world :) All the information you have listed along with the pictures are like a piece of time itself and the way all these people have communicated with you to make part in such a great project is wonderful. My dad does have some memories about Hattie, he called her aunt Hattie, and he remembers visiting her house and sometimes seeing her two poodles that she had. He speaks very highly of her and how she was an inspiration to the women of modern times, as she was the one to design the uniforms for women soldiers, although she died maybe when he was about 10 or 12 years old. So he doesn't really know her that well from first hand experience, but he knew about her work and about what she did. Maybe later on, I can ask him to tell me more about what he remembers about Hattie and share it with you, like a memoir.
What we know of the most, is of course of my grandfather, Harold Carnegie Apisdorf, and of the the immediate family, Irving, and Claire. Although for some reason they didn't really get along that much, and they weren't that close either, my dad has had more contact with the family of his mother, Judy. I just know that Harold and his siblings weren't that close, I am going to have to ask my father more about that, to learn the why's and the how's, and maybe he isn't all that sure either. We also have some photos of his family, my dad has all the old photos saved somewhere so I am going to have to dig 'em up so that maybe I could share them with you. Maybe we even have some from Hattie, but I really doubt that.
I would definitely love to be a part of your project and of your website! However, I have seen that you haven't added a lot of info since 2015, so I am hoping you are well, and that you still have some space to add us in. If you would like to know anything else, please don't hesitate to ask. If we can help you with anything else please do tell us.
I am going to read all the info in your website and see if I have any questions to ask myself :) But, today in fact, I noticed a glitch in your website. When I tried to access the main webpage it told me that it used a unidentified plug in or something like that, and then the webpage was blank. I am using google chrome, but I also tried it out on Safari and still nothing happened. The address that I tired to access was http://hattie-carnegie.info/ but when I checked out any of the other subpages everything went okay, for example: http://hattie-carnegie.info/heritage.html worked perfectly fine. I tried it on my phone just to be sure, and it also worked there! So I am not quite sure what it is, it could just be my computer though.
I do have one question to ask myself, are you related to Hattie? or why have you become so invested with her life and her work? I mean it's great, but I am just a little curious. I hope we can work together and keep in contact.
Thank you so much for everything,
Sending love back,
A Silent Video of New York City in the early 1900's when Hattie was a teenager- via You Tube
ABEL "TONI" CARNEGIE
Abel "Toni" Carnegie. Brother of Hattie Carnegie.
Photo of Toni and Hattie.
Hattie couldn't put that coffee down.
Is it a styrofoam cup, paper cup or regular mug?
I wonder if they had those in the 1950's?????
Photobombers are in the Background.........LOL!
Toni Carnegie at Central Park in 1970
I have heard a lot of nice things about Toni.
He must have been a nice guy.
Thank you to Shoshana for sharing these personal family photos.
HATTIE'S best friends after she moved to New York City as a young teenager:
ALMA GLUCK- Became a Famous Opera Singer, She sang at the Metropolitan Opera. Hattie's very best friend. First person who befriended Hattie in America.
Alma was from Romania. Hattie really appreciated the close friendships she developed upon arriving in New York.
Once Hattie started working for Macy's it not only helped the family financially. she had the additional chance to meet many friends who would eventually assist her in her dreams of becoming successful in the fashion business. What she admired most about her friends though, was that they cared about each other.
Hattie mentioned in the 1949 Collier's Magazine interview, that one of her first friends in America was a young girl named Alma Gluck. She was a few years older than Hattie and she looked up to her.
Alma and her family emigrated from Romania, so she understood the difficulty Hattie had adjusting to her new country and new surroundings, and the girls quickly became best friends.
Hattie stated that when her father died, her mother was very sad and went into a major depression. She was also having a difficult time taking care of Hattie's little brothers and sisters. Hattie was busy working a lot so she didn't have much time to help her care for them.
Hattie cried, "I'm just so worried about my mother," telling her friend, "I don't know what to do".
Hattie's kindhearted friend went over a few times a week and helped Hattie's mother take care of Hattie's younger siblings, and cheered Mrs. Kanengeiser up by singing opera to her.
Alma was a Famous Opera Singer at the turn of the century, and the first person ever to have a million selling record. She sang at The Metropolitan Opera.
Hattie was an avid opera fan and loved her friend's concerts, and designed all of Alma's costumes that she wore on stage while performing.
Hattie and Alma were each other biggest fans.
Alma Gluck was also the grandmother of actress Stephanie Zimbalist of Remington Steele fame.
Alma Gluck became a famous opera singer, and sent many of her friends to Hattie's shop
. Hattie never forgot her friends kindness and when she died, in 1938, Hattie was heartbroken..
Henrietta and the Earrings.
Henrietta and her friend Alma Gluck decided they wanted to pierce each others ears one afternoon. Henrietta thought pierced earrings were elegant.. She was determined to have her ears pierced.
Her father objected to the idea and forbid her to have her ears pierced, because they could become infected. Isaac and Hsnnah knew that sickness and infection was not only common in the tenements where they resided but was often deadly.
The girls initially decided to do it themselves, but Henrietta got scared when Alma talked her into piercing her ears anyhow despite her fathers objection. She could have been afraid of the needle, but she was probably more afraid of her fathers wrath.
Henrietta told Alma that she wasn’t allowed to have her ears pierced and the reason why her father had objected . Alma talked Henrietta into having her ears pierced at a tiny shop which she assured her friend was sanitary .
Henrietta let the owner pierce her ears justifying her disobedience by determining that her father simply had objected to her and Alma piercing each others ears.
Her ears did not become infected, however she knew what she had done was wrong, because she tried to hide the earrings
Her father believed her when she said, Alma and her did NOT pierce each others ears, but Hattie’s conscience got the best of her she told her father the truth.
Isaac was very upset and ordered her to throw away the earrings that she had purchased and remove the earrings from her ears. Hattie did as she was told on the surface, but like many teenagers do today the minute she was outside of her father's watchful eyes she put those earrings back in her ears, and removed them before she returned home each evening.
VALESKA SURATT- A Silent Movie Actress, and Broadway Star.
She discovered Hattie Carnegie while she was out having lunch with friends. Hattie was amazed that someone so famous would speak to her, and they became friends.
Valeska Suratt was the first person to notice that Hattie had talent and ambition. Valeska was four years older than Hattie.
ROSIE ROTH- Hattie and her friend Rosie Roth were business partners and co-owners of the shop from 1909 until after World War I.
Hattie bought Rosie's share of the business as Rosie didn't want the stress of running a business.
After Hattie married John Zanft in 1928, they turned Hattie Carnegie Inc. into a family business.
Hattie and her friend Rosie, whom she met while working at Macy's, They decided to go into business together because neither of them had enough money saved to buy their own shop. They looked around but to no avail, they still couldn't locate a building that they could afford.
They were about to give up looking for a shop when friends of the girls came to their rescue. Hattie's friends were golf instructors who taught in the nice weather and in the off season they owned a sports store.
They informed Hattie that they had some space in the upstairs of their building which equaled three rooms. They would rent it to them for a reasonable rental fee if they were interested.
It was in a rundown neighborhood. Hattie overlooked the neighborhood.
She was so thankful and happy that she couldn't wait to sign the lease, and as soon as all the legal documents were signed, promptly set up shop.
She pictured her name on billboards- Rosie designed the dresses,Hattie created matching hats. Hattie was also salesgirl and mannequin. She dressed in their designs as an advertisement for the store.
Despite the rundown neighborhood. The girls were a surprise overnight success.
Hattie had many contacts from her years working and training through Macy's and she had many wealthy and very successful friends, who in turn told their friends about the new shop and that they just had to visit the shop.
Hattie always laughed when she remembered that time. It was a rundown neighborhood. They shared the building with not only the sports store, but also a laundry mat, a deli and a Chinese restaurant. It was quite the site to see all these high society women who also overlooked the neighborhood. Hattie commented that she was always embarassed that all the dresses and hats smelled like Chinese food and cold cuts.
When Hattie was in the process of buying out Rosie's interest in the business, the only way that Hattie could afford do this was to pay monthly installments to her. She always paid her bill in a timely manner, however Rosie insisted that her name was to remain on the sign because until Hattie paid her in full. She was still co-owner of the business they shared and built together, so Rosie still wanted credit.
Hattie confessed that two months later, she felt like it was her shop. Rosie had left and she was now doing all the work. Hattie said, "Rosie was understanding, she could have called me on that, but because they were friends she didn't." She couldn't stand it any more, She changed the sign which once read,
"ROTH-CARNEGIE LADIES HATTER" to "HATTIE CARNEGIE INC" Hattie eagerly awaited the challenge that running a business would bring her.
Rosie accepted employment with a married couple by the name of Jackson who owned a small dress shop and were looking for a designer. Rosie was a talented designer, but she just no longer wanted the hassle of owning and operating a shop, and wanted to work for a small family owned company.
In 1909, Hattie Carnegie joined forces with one of her best friends, Rosie Roth, to incorprate what was to become one of the most successful fashion empires in history. Hattie's friend loved Hattie's sense of style, and because they worked together at Macy's, she knew that Hattie had a lot of drive and determination. She was also a trained milliner, which meant she designed hats
. Hattie was really petite and stylish so she was milliner and mannequin and Rosie designed the dresses, while Hattie took care of the business side and also waited on customers attired in their various designs.
After a 13 year partnership though, Hattie felt like she was in a rut. Rosie was content with the business as is, not so with Hattie, she wanted to expand and climb the ladder of success.
Hattie stated in a 1949 interview, that she and Rosie, although they were friends, had had creative differences and their personalities were as different as night and day.
Hattie added, "It was either me or Rosie after a while, one of us had to buy they other out, or we would kill each other. Everyone was stunned and shocked that it was me who bought her out, and the rest in history". Hattie and Rosie remained friends for the rest of their lives.
Rosie was Hattie's business partner when Lucille Ball began working for Hattie in 1928.
Hattie's name wasn't really Hattie Carnegie at all. Her birth name was Henrietta Kanengeiser. She wasn't given the nickname of Hattie until she began her employment and training at Macy's when she was 15 years of age. Hattie was a fitting nickname for the young girl for two reasons, She was trained as a milliner through Macy's Department Store, a designer who makes hats, and Hattie was a suitable nickname for Henrietta.
She took the name Carnegie, when she was in her 20's, in tribute to Andrew Carnegie. At the turn of the century, Carnegie was the richest man in America. Hatttie wanted to be as successful as Carnegie
.On the ship, an inquisitive Miss Henrietta, who was struggling with speaking English, was asking a steward all kinds of questions about America.
Her parents didn't want her bothering people with endless questions, but Henrietta was so curious and wanted to learn all about America.
The ships staff and passengers admired her curiousity, and when she asked one passenger who the most successful man in America was,
He thought for a moment and answered: Andrew Carnegie.
Henrietta's blue eyes brightened and she smiled and announced: "When I get to America, my name shall be Carnegie too".
Hattie Carnegie was never related to the Carnegie Family, but the name of her choosing brought her good fortune.
Many immigrants changed their last names to assimulate into their adopted country. The entire Kanengeiser family soon followed Hattie's lead and changed their names to Carnegie as well. Her parents didn't like the name Hattie, and although everyone else began calling her Hattie, her parents named her Henrietta and called her that until they died.
Upon arriving in New York from Austria, fourteen year old Henrietta knew she had to find a job to continue to help support her family. Back in Vienna, she had quit school two years prior to do just that.
Now it was going to be even more difficult for the young teenager. She was in a foreign country that spoke a language she could barely understand. Because she was uncertain about her English speaking abilites, she didn't want to get a job in a clothing store just yet. She took several different jobs; washing floors and dishes, among the various types of housework.
Hattie mentioned in an interview that most people were understanding that she was new to the United States, and were patient with her. They knew she was a hard worker, and wanted to help out her family. Still many others could be unbelievably cruel to her. They made fun of her culture, her religion, her accent and the fact that she struggled understanding and speaking English. Although she couldn't really understand what the words themselves meant, she knew they were making fun of her because of the tone of their voices and their gestures.
Hattie went home in the evening and cried herself to sleep many nights because she was upset and so exhausted from working all day long.
Hattie made a vow then and there. If she ever achieved her dream of having her own shop, everyone would be welcomed there- no matter what their race, religion or nationality.
Hattie was belittled. The experience gave her an understanding of the evils of prejudice. Hattie was very accepting, generous and loyal to those she cared about. She considered her difficult childhood a true learning experience. She was determined to acheive success with her life.
How Hattie Almost Lost her Business
When Hattie was 19 years old, she thought her career was ruined before it was even started. She was working at Macy's at the time, and she felt that she might have just enough money and training, after spending four years working for them, to make a go of it.
Unfortunately she met the wrong person. A man started talking to her, and because they had the same interests and ambitions, over time she began to trust him. He wanted the same thing she did- his own business. Hattie did find it strange, however, that he was asking her all sorts of questions about John Zanft and their relationship. He seemed to know they had dated and were serious about each other.
She explained her sad story- that they had to split up because of her arranged marriage. She was depressed because John was gone and would probably never see him again. She mentioned that she felt she should start focusing on a career now and get on with her own life, instead of always wanting to be with John. The man asked her how much money she had saved in the bank, and she foolishly told him.
He asked her that if they split the cost they could have a shop now.
Hattie, being so determined to begin her career, thought that was a great idea. She took the money out of the bank, and she and her so-called friend went shopping.
Hattie said, "I was young, a recent immigrant, determined but very naive". For the first time in three years, Hattie didn't have John to turn to for advice in the matter. She didn't understand at the time to get everything in writing, and she just took him at his word.
Hattie said: "We began to set up shop, we bought all the items we thought we needed for our new business venture". After a month of putting everything together he said: "Our grand opening is Monday".
Hattie was overjoyed. She was finally going to have her dream. When Monday finally came and she arrived at the new location, everything was gone. Her so called friend dumped her and took off with everything, setting up shop for himself.
Hattie was stunned and heartbroken. Unfortunately she didn't have a case because she had no proof they ever had a contract. Nothing was in writing. Hattie felt she didn't have time for tears, as she had to begin again. That meant saving money, going back to her job at Macy's. Hattie decided she was going to learn all she could about business so this would never happen again. Hence she started attending business seminars, making sure she attended evey one.
It took Hattie four additional years of hard work, saving, and educational seminars, finally opening her shop in 1909 at the age of 23.
Hattie got the last laugh in the end, because she became a success. Whenever she had a fashion show this man was promptly thrown out if he even set foot in her store.
When he was losing his business, he begged and pleaded for her help-"he even cried", she said, "I wasn't about to help him though. He almost had me ruined". Hattie told him off and his business went under and he was never heard from again. Hattie now understood why he was so concerned about her and John Zanft, and whether they were together. "John would have dealt with him!", she said with a laugh.
A Young Girl Ahead of her Time
Hattie Carnegie was very controversial for her time for a couple of reasons. She was born in 1886 in Austria. Hattie's family was Jewish so they wanted to make sure she would marry someone who would not only take care of her but who was also Jewish. Her parents pressured her into an arranged marriage which she eventually agreed to. The problem was it didn't work out because she was in love with someone else. Her first husband was also in love with someone else. After a time they eventually agreed to divorce. Divorce was practically unheard of at the time. They would both be free to marry for love.
When Hattie was working for Macy's Department Store, All of her dresses were very low cut. she thought they looked better that way. She and her supervisor used to fight over this, but it was the new style. Hattie was just a teenager and a recent immigrant when she started working at Macy's. They admired her drive and ambition, but got aggravated at her stubborn nature. She was very young, but knew so much about fashion. Eventually Hattie won that battle because everything she designed, and all the ideas she came up with, were well received by the customers. Hatties innovative thinking was making Macy's Department Store a lot of money. During the time she worked and trained at Macy's, for six or seven years, they began to respect her. They started consulting her concerning fashion design
which led to her increased confidence and independent nature.
I have noticed, with the Hattie Carnegie clothes that I own, when I wear them they are slightly above the knee. She kept that fashion trend, and helped to start it. The raised hem seem like nothing today, but it was very controversial in her time.
Why are you Dressed like that?
When Hattie was a teenager, working for Macy's Department Stores, she had aspirations of being a famous and successful businesswoman- one day and owning her own shop- instead of working for someone else.
Because of this fact, she had a great sense of fashion. She never wanted to look tacky because she thought that would project badly on her future choice of career, so she always dressed nicely. She wore designs that she created. She took great care to make sure she looked perfect, and was so proud when someone complimented her on her beautiful clothes.
One day, before she met John, one of her friends asked her if she wanted to go out with him. She asked her co-worker and best friend, Rosie Roth, if she minded filling in for her that afternoon. Hattie wanted to leave early that afternoon and wanted to leave right from the store.
Hattie came out of the dressing room a little later and was dressed so differently that Rosie thought she had lost her mind. Hattie was always concerned with looking fashionable that it didn't make any sense.
"What in the world is wrong with you Hattie, You want to be in the fashion business and you are going out on a date, dressed like that.....Where is your beautiful dress?"
Hattie answered, "I think I would look very strange wearing a fancy dress to go play golf". Hattie's friend was a golf instructor.
Fashion and Other Popular Culture of 1900-1910
Hattie's Formative Years
The first decade of the 20th century was a time of social change in America and the world. It was the era of mass immigration and mixing of cultures and a changing of ideals, especially for women.
Henrietta Kanengeiser was just 14 years old when she boarded a ship to America with her parents and three brothers and two sisters. Life was so different in Austria. She grew up in the countryside surrounded by the beauty of the open fields, flowers and mountains and went to a little schoolhouse in the village. When she was not in school or the synagogue, little Henrietta appreciated nature and the beauty of Austria, and loved animals and flowers. When she was a little girl, she loved modeling her mother’s hats in the mirror. She adored pretty dresses and was such a little lady, but at the same time she was fiercely independent. This was part of the reason, that although reluctant at first, Henrietta developed an extreme love for America and New York City. That love for pretty dresses and jewelry and that independent nature that she developed in Austria would serve her well. Years later that little girl, who modeled her mother’s hats in the mirror and was the daughter of a tailor, would conquer the fashion world.
New York City was so different from life in Austria. In Austria, Henrietta’s life would have been mapped out for her, she was bound by what her culture expected of her. In America, she would be permitted to achieve her dreams. Her life became very different than it would have been if she remained in Austria.
Henrietta was a working girl in New York City from the first days. Still struggling with the English language she accepted housework which consisted of cleaning floors, washing dishes and doing other household chores for the more well to do households. Later she went to work with other young girls in the mills. It was unskilled, tedious and very dangerous labor. Many times children would be severely injured while working with the machinery. Although they would be passed a decade later in 1900, there were no child labor laws. Most children of Henrietta’s generation instead of completing elementary school went off to the mills and sweatshops each day.
In 1900, You were considered fortunate if you had an eighth grade education. Henrietta only had a sixth grade education, but she was the eldest daughter in a very poor family, so obtaining employment was a necessity. Only a mere 10% of the population graduated from high school in 1900.
Recreation at the Turn of the Century
The new American worked hard for a living, but they also found time for recreation. Jazz was a new and popular music. Young people of Hattie’s generation also enjoyed attending the theater, and opera and classical music was extremely popular among European immigrants.
Hattie loved to play golf. I laughed at the thought of this little lady, who wasn’t even five feet tall, picking up a golf club that was almost bigger than she was. Golf was a very popular sport in 1900. Young women of Hattie’s generation were not only going to the golf course to watch their boyfriends play, they were sometimes, even challenging them to a game and dare I say, winning.
Other popular sports, that the new liberated women of Hattie’s generation took part in, were boating, rollerskating and riding a bicycle.
The phonograph that was invented the year Hattie was born in 1886, but it first achieved extreme popularity in 1900. It was considered a fabulous invention. One could actually turn a lever and listen to a song being played. The phonograph popularized opera and classical music into the mainstream. Due to it’s high pitch and use of several musical instruments,it was the perfect music to be played on the earliest version of the record player.
Comic books and cartoons were also popular during this decade. Illustrators and newspaper columnists were as popular in the first decade of the Twentieth Century as movie stars are today.
Riding in motorcars was considered not only fun, but made travel easier than a generation before. They had not yet totally replaced horse and buggy, but even with the slow speeds that the first automobiles had, everyone wanted to have one. When the assembly line was perfected. Automobiles were available to everyone at a reasonable price. Even Hattie had an automobile when she began to achieve success.
A Gibson Girl
The Women's Rights Movement
Young women of Hattie’s generation were also beginning to realize that they lacked the basic right to be heard, to make their opinions known, and to be be considered equal within society.. They could not vote, but they were determined to fight for their rights. These women felt certain rights should be granted to each and every citizen regardless of their gender. The Women’s Suffrage Movement was in high gear. Women who attempted to cast ballots in elections were arrested and put in jail. Whatever property a woman owned upon her marriage, in the eyes of the law it now belonged to her husband. Women were also
discouraged from seeking employment outside the home. Successful businesswomen were few and far between. Society had a difficult time accepting an intelligent, independent, business savvy woman who felt that she could balance career and family. Due to these inequalities, The Women’s Suffrage Movement was born, but by 1900 it was in high gear. The Gibson Girl was very involved in this movement.
What a Beautiful, Stylish Lady Looked Like
She was very beautiful dressed in lace and ribbons, her hair was upswept, pinned and soft. She loved to wear beautiful hats, most often with floral prints. Hats were a popular and most often essential part of the daily wardrobe. She was also a controversial trendsetter. Even though her dresses usually reached her ankles. Her dress had a raised bustle. They were very low cut, sometimes with very short sleeves. The girls of this generation loved to show off their figures. If she chose to wear a corset, It was less restricting and used to enhance her figure, rather than to just make her appear thinner as it had a generation before.
The first type of shoe with a higher stylish heel was soon invented. Women were learning how to walk with grace in them. Small feet were considered very pretty, and girls would be known to wear a shoe that was sometimes two sizes too small. Some women would even resort to surgery to amputate their little toes to fit into a smaller size shoe.
The First Cosmetics
The Gibson Girl loved the shades and colors of cosmetics. Because of the growing popularity of the first homemade cosmetics, they began to be developed and sold in most department stores. Hattie bought her first cosmetics when she was working as a salesgirl at Macy’s Department Store and loved all the pretty shades.
Her Hair Styles
Hattie was considered the ideal Gibson Girl of her generation. She was beautiful, she had blonde hair and a head full of curls. Curly hair was a sign of extreme beauty. When a primitive version the curling iron was invented straight haired women achieved the beautiful hair that Hattie was considered fortunate to be born with. They used these irons, which were not only a fire hazard, but were very dangerous and many girls burned themselves and set their hair on fire in an effort to curl it.
Hair ornaments were coming into vogue. Hair would be fastened into a clip most often on one side of the head. They were fashioned into decorative and feminine objects, such as butterflies, flowers, ribbons, and some even had real hair woven into them. Beads with crystals were really popular, anything that shined and glowed. Opera length pearl necklaces were all the rage, because girls of this generation adored the opera and the theater and dressed to the occasion. It was common to see hair ornaments and hats covered in beautiful feathers. Cameos were pinned to dresses. (To be continued).
More on the Culture and Styles of Hattie's Generation
Women's Suffrage and Hattie Carnegie
I decided with the upcoming election that I would discuss Women’s Rghts Movement and Women's Suffrage. This topic is very detailed a with several different issues, but I decided my focus was going to be the issue which affected Hattie Carnegie the most. The issue that I have selected is Property and Business Ownership. The Women’s Rights Movement was very near and dear to Hattie’s heart, and were of equal importance to her.
The End of Oppression ?
Hattie Carnegie was an impoverished Austrian-Jewish immigrant whose family boarded a ship in search of the American Dream. Oppression of the Jewish population ran so rampant in Austria, after that horrible fire the family had no choice, but to begin a new life in a foreign land.
Despite the fact she lacked much of a formal education, Hattie knew what she wanted very early in life. She was a determined young lady and nothing was going to stop her from achieving her goals.
By the time that Hattie had been in the United States a few years, she had become very adapted and assimulated into her new culture. She held a management position at Macy’s Department Store.
She was a successful milliner. I will write more about millinery in the next few weeks. Hattie had just about conquered the English language. Above all, she was a patriot, and loved her adopted country.
Hattie usually got what she wanted. Miss Hattie decided that another dream she wanted was to be an American citizen. She was ready for the challenge. She mentioned to her dear friend Valeska Suratt that she wanted to officially obtain her American citizenship. Hattie shared her thoughts on the subject of her impending citizenship with Valeska, because she was a natural born American citizen. Hattie
thought Valeska's opinion was important because she wanted advice from someone who was born in the United States. Valeska mentioned to Hattie that she could officially become an American citizen, but why bother because she would have no voice in the government. Hattie didn’t understand why, Her parents told her, on the ship over from Austria, that America was going to be good for them. It would allow them opportunities in life that they wouldn’t have if they remained in Austria which was the reason why they left Austria.
A Little Lady
Hattie understood the oppression of the Jewish people and their struggles for equality with regard to employment and education back in Austria, but this was America. When the family had traveled to escape those prejudical attitudes, she was now going to experience similar prejudice because she was a woman.
Hattie’s Introduction to the Movement
Valeska Suratt was Hattie’s first American friend, with the exception of John Zanft. At the turn of the century Valeska Suratt was a household name. She was a successful theatre actress and even appeared in a few silent films and was involved in the early suffrage movement. The more Hattie’s friend discussed the movement with her the more interested Hattie became. She wanted a business of her own and wanted the rights to make informed and legal decisions regarding that business. She attended rallies whenever she could and talked with other women who had business aspirations. She also believed as her friend Valeska had that any achievement or advancement that the businesswoman had made in the Nineteenth Century could actually be in jeopardy if they didn’t have representation and a voice in the Twentieth Century. That representation she believed began at the voting booth.
The Women’s Rights Movement certainly did not begin with Hattie’s generation, it actually began over forty years prior to her birth- but by the time she arrived in New York City in 1900, the largest and least recognized civil rights movement was in full force.
Women were very involved in securing equal rights for African-Americans and it was because of this women had began to realize their basic rights of citizenship were also being denied. African-American men appreciated the efforts of these women, and gratefully returned the favor by supporting the Women’s Rights Movement and equal rights for women of all races.
and Hattie Carnegie-Fleischman
In 1900, legislation was passed that gave limited rights to property and business ownership to married women. This was amended from the original documentation in 1848 that gave women the right to own property or a business with the permission of her husband. Still these rights were very limited. If a woman divorced her husband, the Court would automatically award her property or business to her husband in the divorce settlement, even if it was the wife’s property prior to their marriage. Hattie's parents arranged her marriage while she was still a teenager, as was customary in her culture, but they thought she was too young to marry at that time so they allowed her to wait a few years. Hattie was in her early 20’s by the time she married Ferdinand Fleischman sometime around 1910. Hattie started her millinery/fashion business a year before she married Ferdinand. She was an overnight success, but worked tirelessly to achieve her goals. Hattie stated that she never harbored any ill feelings toward Ferdinand. He wasn’t the love of her life, but she developed a lasting friendship and respect for him.
He was very kind to Hattie as he had promised her father he would be.
He never stood in her way, except for the time that Hattie mentioned the idea of them getting a divorce- an idea Ferdinand opposed, but he compromised and agreed to a trial separation. Hattie and Ferdinand separated and reunited several times, before finally deciding that the marriage wasn’t going to work. Neither of them could ever be truly happy with the situation, and the couple divorced amicably. Hattie stressed that although Ferdinand fought with her when she attempted to file for the initial divorce, he was never greedy or selfish. She appreciated his not fighting her for the rights to the company that she had built. According to the current divorce laws, Ferdinand could have taken over the business and Hattie would have been left with nothing, but he didn’t believe it was right to take Hattie’s business from her. She was thankful for the understanding nature of her ex-husband. When she was asked about her first marriage she said that the marriage was a mistake for both of them, and added that it wasn’t Ferdinand’s fault and that arranged marriages were the problem. Ferdinand was part Austrian and part English. England was also fighting for a similar Equal Rights Amendment for Women.
Little House on the Prairie
Women and business ownership was the focus of a memorable episode of Little House on the Prairie. The series was set back in the 1870’s and 1880’s at the heighth of the Industrial Revolution when women were just beginning to have a voice of their own. This particular episode revolved around the Olesons who were having a fight over the management of the Mercantile. Mrs. Oleson threatened to leave her husband.
The Mercantile had belonged to Mrs. Oleson when they married years before. Mr. Oleson brought up the fact that the Mercantile was now his by law if she decided to leave him. She was so angry she stormed out. Anyone who has seen the show is aware that Mrs. Oleson was the ultimate snob of the town. She thought that she was superior to everyone, so nobody liked her. The news of their breakup was the town gossip. The women grew increasingly nervous and passed around a petition on property and business ownership. The men refused to sign, with the exception of Laura’s husband, Almanzo. It became a town divided. The women sided with Mrs. Oleson and the men of the town sided with Mr. Oleson.
The Ingalls discussed the situation of business and property ownership. Caroline mentioned to Charles that although she didn’t usually agree with Mrs. Oleson about anything this was different. The business was hers. She asked Charles what he would do if this was them, all this time trying to persuade him to sign the petition. He told her, that he thought the petition was foolish and the women were foolish because he considered them to be equal in every respect. She continued further, “What if we divorced, what then"? Charles replied, “In that case, the law would say the business was mine". With that Caroline, up until the time the lone hold out, packed a suitcase and moved down the street to the restaurant hotel. The episode ended on a positive note with the men realizing that they needed their wives, and in true sitcom fashion all the men signing the petition allowing the women of Walnut Grove to own property that was rightfully theirs.
They Could Serve, but Could Not Vote
Women could run for elected office in every state in the union by 1877, and had served on juries since the mid 19th century, but they could not vote in elections. If they attempted to do so the ballots were cast aside and not counted. Eventually protesters of disenfranched women voters were thrown in prison. Susan B. Anthony the co-founder of Suffrage for Women was imprisoned for attempting to cast a ballot in a federal election. By 1890 several states permitted women to vote in state and local elections. Wyoming was the first state to recognize women’s suffrage. Women were still not recognized and counted at the federal level.
The Norse Vikings- A Tolerant Society
Another interesting point. The Norse Vikings were considered tyrants and feared throughout the Viking Age. The Viking Age lasted from around 700 AD to 1000 AD. The Norse Pirates were feared globally but were surprisingly very tolerant and accepting toward Viking women. Women in the Viking culture during the Viking age had an amazing slate of rights.
This included the right to actually divorce a spouse for mistreatment or adultery, and they were usually granted custody of the children following a separation.
Erik the Red’s wife left him. I don’t know if they were officially divorced or not. She left him over his refusal to give up his heathen ways and to convert to Christianity. Leif, Erik’s eldest son who discovered America, was peaceful and accepted Christianity. He brought the ideals of his new faith back with him to his country and family. Leif’s siblings and mother adopted Christianity, but Erik rejected the faith and his wife gave him an ultimatum. When he still didn’t comply, she left him and took the three other children with her. The Vikings were the first culture to recognize women as equals, although, New Zealand was the first country to grant women the vote.
The Great War
About ten years or so preceding and during The Great War, the Women’s Right Movement was starting to generate serious attention, from even those individuals who had previously opposed the movement.
The Gibson Girl, was a term that referred to young girls of Hattie Carnegie’s generation. The Gibson Girl was a beautiful fashionable young woman with a voice and a social cause that she not only believed in but that she also pioneered and fought for. While the servicemen were overseas protecting our freedoms and interests the women did what they could, and assisted the country and industry on the home front. They still had no offical say in who their leaders were, regardless, they were patriots. Women entered the workforce in droves, staying there until the war was over. With that act of non-selfish patriotism, America finally woke up to the injustices facing women in America.
he Nineenth Amendment was passed into law in 1920 giving women the right to vote and officially be heard.
Hattie Carnegie-An American
Hattie Carnegie was often invited to Washington DC, a few times each year to present a fashion show for the wives of the Congressmen. After the show Hattie took her models around on a tour the nation’s capital. She wanted them to realize how fortunate they were to be free, valued and represented in America. Hattie told the girls, “Our freedoms are so important to us, remember it has only been seven years since we were permitted to vote”- Hattie Carnegie 1927.
Ferdinand Fleischman wasn’t the only one who didn’t resent being in Hattie’s shadow. Major John Zanft accepted when he proposed to Hattie- he was always going to be overshadowed by her. He accepted the role of second in command and was appointed vice president of Hattie Carnegie Inc. Hattie was always proud of her husband’s military service and commitment to America. She lovingly called him, "My American Soldier." While her American soldier was involved in combat overseas, she, like millions of other women in America and across the world, fought for and finally acheived representation in the country she loved.
Just in Case your Wondering
Hattie Carnegie did pass the citizenship test and officially became an American.
She was always referred to has an American Designer, despite being Austrian born.
I haven’t any idea what political party Hattie Carnegie belonged to, although Major John Zanft was a Republican.
Hattie once stated that she voted in every election starting in 1920.
http://www.legacy98.org/ for more information on Women's Suffrage and the Women's Rights Movement.
The Crowning Touch:
Magnificent 20th -Century Hats Popularity of Hats during the Gibson Girl Generation; Hattie’s generation
By Bernadine Chapman
When it comes to elegant headgear, obviously, the hat was the crowning glory of the women of the early 20th century. Feminine hats have run the gamut of the fashion spectrum for centuries, and spectacular head coverings easily wove their way in a special place of honor in a woman’s wardrobe.
Yesteryear’s ladies’ hats reflect a menagerie of unequalled motifs , setting trends that took top billing when it came to making a fashion statement in women’s apparel. Between 1905 thru 1925, a variety of millinery styles began to flood the fashion market. Although hat choices were virtually inexhaustible, basically head coverings were uniform in structure. Stock hats were created from a basic crown in either flat style or bell shape. Brims came in various widths, ranging from the turned down types to the wide magnificent brims that frequently completed a woman’s ensemble. In it’s simplest form, a hat was a hat, but with the addition of a few accessories, the lady’s hat was transformed into an enchanting phenomenon, and the more ornate and profuse the trimmings, the better.
Hats were fashioned from a variety of materials, Straws, felts, velvets, silks and satins were shaped to a particular style, then elaborately enhanced with an abundance of feminine accouterments . Popular hat coverings of the times included but weren’t limited to, yards of taffeta, miles of ribbons, lengths of lace, gardens of flowers, bushels of fruits and the ever popular plumage from our featured friends.
Around 1900, the Audobon Society headed a strong campaign to restrict the use of birds on headgear. Some hat accessories actually used entire stuffed birds or other bird anatomy, ie, halved birds and bird wings, as hat decorations. Pursing the cause for some 20 year, the society’s efforts eventually proved victorious with the passage of legislation to prohibit the use of natural wildlife on millinery fashions with the exception of allowing feathers.
Ostrich feathers, an acceptable form of fashion décor, were one of the most popular of hat enhancements. Plumes naturally shed by the ostrich could be easily dyed to match a specific wardrobe color. Fully curled ostrich feathers provided a striking addition, when included as part of a hats crowning glory. In efforts to achieve a fuller look, bunches of ostrich feather tips were applied to the brim. The tips sold in sets of three, ranging in price from 30 cents to $1.50 per cluster. Hats that sported ostrich feathers were popular fare and considered elite when it came to style and grace.
Society dictates governing ladies’ hats were somewhat contradictory, To women, hats were considered elegant and stylish, but to theater and movie managers, the hats were considered headaches.
Due to a hats’ elaborate construction, reaching heights and circumferences bordering on the outlandish and eccentric, they were a constant annoyance. That unlucky patron, seated behind an elegantly hatted female, virtually found it impossible to see the stage or screen. In efforts to quell paying customers dissent , establishments of the era resorted to a courteous request of “Ladies, Please Your Hats Prior to Performances. Thank you.
Hats were generally worn atop a profusion of hair which was the style of the day. Many women futher increased the volume of their hair by adding hair pieces to accentuate the height of their natural coiffure and this process resulted in hats reaching greater heights. Hats could be placed squarely on the head, tipped at a jaunty angle or with the brim pulled to one side. Her whatever style a woman chose to affix her hat, it became her personal fashion statement.
To hold the hat firmly on her head, women started to enlist the use of hatpins. Purchased in dozen lots for 3 cents, hatpins not only became a means of securing a lofty headpiece, but also considered lethal weapons.
Accounts of accidental stabbing, scrapping, scarring and other serious injuries caused by the improper placement of the hatpin were commonplace.
Between 1900 and 1915 many communities were embroiled in the hatpin controversy, and laws pertaining to proper hatpin use abounded. Ordnances governing the hatpin encompassed regulations concerning the extent of hatpin protrusion beyond the hat proper and recommendations of hatpin top protectors.
Hatpins were considered so dangerous in fact , their wearing was restricted on some forms of public transportation.
The majority of the women of the era felt that the hatpin laws bordered on the ridiculous; those at the mercy of a misplaced hatpin begged to differ. For the next 20 years the hatpin debate continued , until the invention of the safe bobby pin took over, The hatpin controversy was all but forgotten and the shocking new hairdo took top priority as the most important fashion concern of the day.
The stylish hats of yesteryear could be purchased at the leading department store, ordered from the pages of mail order catalogues, or professionally designed by a milliner. Many a creative woman devised her own hat style by using imagination and ingenuity.
Nonetheless, the hats of the early 20th century proudly claimed a place of honor, demanding the status as an immediate fashion statement.
The Victorian lady’s crowning glory, has known no close challengers, when it came to be recognized as a sign of an elegantly dressed woman of the era.
Interesting Mini Articles……
Ladies Home Journal: Published in October, 1913
Question: What are the latest colors in hats this year? Should my hat match my suit?
Answer: It is a matter of personal taste as to your hat matching your suit.. With a black suit, a purple, light blue or bright red hat is in good taste and often more becoming than one that is all black.. When I say “red” I mean all the beautiful peony reds which are very fashionable this year, however with an all navy suit in the new shade of green which is called “evergreen” or the deep forest or seal brown is also very chic. For trimming of darker hats the new tango yellows, in a complete line of colors which consist of a complete line of colors from light orange to a burnished copper and a deep mahogany shade, are new an they form a beautiful contrast.. The new reds are in a peony shade, The lightest being a brilliant DuBarry Rose, The darkest being a deep warm garnet. Gray too, is popular, and will be worn but not in the brown shades of past seasons, but in putty shades such as platinum, silver gray or gun metal.
There are many other new colorings, varying from the neutral to the intense in shades, but remember when only when hat can be purchased within your budget at the time, and any desired bright note can be added as a trimming. Intense colors should be used in one area only, and must be chosen carefully when they come in direct contact with the features. When a bright color is used for a hat, a black velvet trim will make it more becoming.
Dry Cleaning was Available in 1925- Amazing!
From Home Laundering and Dry Cleaning (Scranton, PA. The Women’s Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences, 1925)
NEVER EVER TRY THESE METHODS..... FOR ENTERTAINMENT ONLY! THANK YOU!
Hats represent a special branch of cleaning. For home use the following simple suggestions will be of value.
For white or lighter colored felt hats, first brush then go over the surface lightly with fine sandpaper. If very soiled use gasoline and a light woolen cloth and rub the felt very well, then brush and shape with the hands.
Still another method is to make a paste of powdered magnesia. Spread the paste over the hat. It can be easily brushed off when dry.
White and colored beaver hats made be cleaned with wood alcohol applied with a soft brush.
Hats made of manilla, hemp, YES, IT SAID, HEMP,LOL! panama and rough straw braids in natural colors may be cleaned by using a weak solution of oxalic acid. For a badly sunburnt hat, dissolve one tablespoon of oxalic acid in one pint of water, a process that will require from fifteen to twenty minutes. When the acid is dissolved completely, pour one tablespoon of the solution onto a pine board. If the solution foams or forms bubbles it is too strong, and it should be weakened. CAUTION: WHEN CLEANING A HAT BY THIS METHOD NEVER PLACE YOUR HANDS IN THE ACID SOLUTION.
To bleach a straw hat, make a paste by adding to the juice of a lemon, enough powdered sulfur to make it smooth. Cover the hat well and leave it in the sun to dry. Then brush with a fine brush dipped in water and wipe with a dry cloth. To give a glossy finish to a straw hat, apply a solution of one part transparent shellac to five parts wood alcohol.
Clean light feathers, aigrettes, and paradise plumes by sousing in gasoline, then a combination of one pint of fresh gasoline and two tablespoons of wheat flour. Draw the feather through the closed hand to squeeze out the gasoline. When the feather is practically dry it must be rolled in clean cornstarch.
As gasoline affects some dark colors, dark feathers or plumes must be washed in wood alcohol and never put through a powdered paste or rolled in cornstarch.
EDITORS NOTE: NO WONDER VERY FEW HATS HAVE SURVIVED THE TIMES!
VERY IMPORTANT=WRITTEN FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT VALUE ONLY! FOR YOUR PERSONAL SAFETY, THE SAFETY OF OTHERS AND FOR THE SAFETY OF YOUR VINTAGE COLLECTIBLES DO NOT, REPEAT…..DO NOT TRY THESE PRACTICES TODAY!
ALWAYS BRING TO AN EXPIRENCED DRY CLEANER IN YOUR AREA!
Appeared in the Butterwick Quarterly in the Spring, 1926
Hats for this Spring will be large or small but it is the small hat that plays the biggest part.
The most generally accepted hat of 1926 fit’s the head closely and is the exact depth of the head from the top of the hat to the eyebrow. The small brim comes just over the eyes or is turned up at the front, back or side-front. Paris is experimenting with the new crowns, hat and square or high in the back.
The so-called gigolo crown, but those are severe, but still chic. The close bell shaped crown, is often fitted to the head with a with a crosswise plait. When the hat is of felt or velours, retains it’s vogue.
Hats with broad brims of the cowboy type are new for sport or the country. The large hat of crinoline or fine straw can be used to some extent with afternoon frocks. The French draped turban keeps the hair in place and doesn’t have to be removed during a movie or a play.
The small hat is trimmed with decorative pins, metal and leather ornaments, feathers, narrow ribbon, velvet binding and occasionally flowers. In felt and velours the brim is frequently cut and the ends are crossed in the back. The turban style is trimmed with ornamental pins, while the large hat is trimmed with ribbons or flowers.
This Spring the hat may match the costume, harmonize with it or provide a sharp contrast.
Historical Background on Victorian Hats and Millinery Shops
By Fran Lees Solberg
The Following Article Originally Appeared in the Volume III, Issue 4 Addition of
The Lady’s Gallery- A Magazine about, Fashion, Culture and Antiques
During the Victorian era, the hat was one of the most important fashion accessories in a lady’s wardrobe. It was an indicator of her social class, her fashion sense and even hinted at how generous that her husband or her father was. A hat was an indicator that she was a lady-a woman that attended a church service without a hat would be brandied an eccentric at best and a floozy or commoner at the worst.
One of the purposes of the hat, and it’s often accompanying veils, gloves and parasols, was to protect the skin from the sun and other environmental elements that might cause freckling or tanning. Victorian women valued a white complexion, the paler, the better, so much so that women would go to great lengths to attain the ‘ideal” skin tone-even ingesting such materials as talcum powder or arsenic to achieve a fashionable pallor.
Victorian women loved the outward displays of wealth. Milliners were charged with the same responsibilities as those of the eras architects and interior designers-to make certain that their clients appearances communicated to the world that they could afford the expense of an elaborate hat. And even more important than that was that their husband or father indulged them enough to spend his money on such non essentials.
A woman of moderate means could economize her millinery bills, in a number of ways. Since hats were constructed on a straw or felt base in many cases, it was a simple matter to snip the threads, holding the old trims in place and replace them with fresh or refurbished ones to create a “new” hat.
Women having access to attractive feathers from their flocks of poultry or a husbands passion for hunting game birds might barter these for a milliner’s services or supplies. Those women who lived too far from town to visit a millinery shop might decide to gather straw threshed from the family’s wheat crop and braid into the raw materials for a new hat..
In any case, even the poorest farmer’s wife would put on a well worn, yet freshly washed and starched sunbonnet to go to the nearest settlement for supplies. No matter how meager a family’s resources, a woman would do whatever she could to maintain her complexion.
Millinery shops were a common sight in towns and cities in the United States until the early 1960’s
In the late 1800’s public records such as tax records, town maps and newspaper advertisements show the existence of one or more milliners in county seat towns.
A typical shop would have a front room with showcases, a full length mirror and perhaps a tea table. A milliner always encouraged lengthy visits and a welcoming atmosphere, the longer a potential customer was in the shop, the greater chance that the milliner would make a retail sale.
The workroom in the back of the sales area would have been furnished with a large worktable, storage cabinets and several chairs. A treadle sewing machine would be set up near a window or door to take advantage of the natural light while stitching. Both of the rooms would be heated by woodstoves and lit by kerosene or gaslights.
The millinery shop served additionally as a social center for the ladies of the town and they might linger after shopping for the latest gossip on births, weddings and funerals in the area. Men would almost never come into the shop unless they were paying the bills or buying a gift for a special lady, just as women rarely entered the masculine domain of a blacksmith shop.
While milliners were most exclusively women, census records of the time indicated that many women entered the profession out of choice, not necessity. Many milliners were wives or daughters of men of property who were able to provide a comfortable level of income without female assistance.
Census records of the era also indicated that there was at least one servant listed in the homes of those women who identified themselves as milliners.
Milliners were admired by their peers in the community for their fashionable wardrobes and relative freedom. Buying trips would take the milliner out of town to select new supplies in big cities …..some might even often travel overseas to London or Paris.
When the milliner returned to town she would not only bring back beautiful merchandise but also new information on the social and political issues of the day that was of great importance to the modern woman.
In this way, the news of such movements as women’s suffrage and the temperance movement were spread to women in less populated areas.
Fran Lees Solberg is a free lance writer, designer and teacher specializing in Victorian needlework and craft techniques. She learned her millinery skills while volunteering at Living History Farms in Des Moines, Iowa as an historical interpreter. Fran recently moved to Petaluma, California where she is involved in the local historical society.
HATTIE CARNEGIE FAMILY TREE-LATEST ADD ON-APRIL 5, 2016
HATTIE CARNEGIE'S FAMILY TREE- ADDED ON APRIL 30, 2012
SPECIAL THANKS AND MY APPRECIATION TO HATTIE CARNEGIE'S RELATIVES FOR ASSISTANCE WITH THIS PROJECT
SHOSHANA ANNE SIMON-GRANDDAUGTER OF HERMAN CARNEGIE
BONNIE RADDING-HAYMSON-GRANDDAUGHTER OF FRANCES CARNEGIE-BARNETT
MICHAEL LAUX-GRANDSON OF ROSE CARNEGIE-APISDORF
MARISOL LAUX-WIFE OF MICHAEL LAUX
BILL STEVENSON-GRANDSON OF CELIA CARNEGIE-MEYERS
WENDY APISDORF- GREAT GRANDDAUGHTER OF ROSE CARNEGIE-APISDORF
KANENGEISER (CARNEGIE) CHILDREN
HENRIETTA (HATTIE) BORN (1886)
ORIGINAL FAMILY NAME-KANENGEISER
CARNEGIE (KANENGEISER) FAMILY TREE- UPDATED ON MARCH 15, 2017.
HELEN (HANNAH) KRANCZER KANENGEISER AND ISSAC KANENGEISER-MARRIED IN THE 1880’S IN AUSTRIA
HENRIETTA (HATTIE) CARNEGIE-ZANFT
FIRST MARRIAGE-MARRIED FERDINAND FLEICHSMAN - AUGUST 31, 1910-
ARRANGED MARRIAGE THE COUPLE SEPARATED AND REUNITED SEVERAL TIMES OVER THEIR TWELVE YEAR MARRIAGE TO TRY TO MAKE IT WORK -
DIVORCED AMICABLY ON MAY 29, 1922.
FERDINAND OWNED A FLOWER SHOP IN NEW YORK, ALSO A LANDSCAPING COMPANY.
FERDINAND'S MOTHER WAS ENGLISH. FERDINAND'S FATHER WAS AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN.
HATTIE ALWAYS REFERRED TO FERDINAND AS AN ENGLISHMAN.
SECOND HUSBAND--UNKNOWN-ANNULMENT. SHE ONLY SPOKE OF HIM WHEN SHE ABSOLUTELY HAD TO.
THIRD HUSBAND-MARRIED MAJOR JOHN ZANFT ON AUGUST 22, 1928-UNTIL HATTIE’S DEATH
JOHN WAS HER CHILDHOOD SWEETHEART.
MARRIED ANNA (ANNE) LAX ON DECEMBER 24, 1921
CHILDREN- MARILYN BORN-(1924) AND IMOGENE- BORN (1927)
MARILYN’S DAUGHTER- SHOSHANA ANNE SIMON BORN (1943) SON- CHIP MACKENZIE
ABEL (TONI) CARNEGIE
FIRST MARRIAGE- UNKNOWN-DIVORCED
COMMON LAW WIFE- VIOLET- UNTIL TONI’S DEATH
VIOLET WAS CATHOLIC. TONI WAS JEWISH. THEY NEVER MARRIED, BUT THEY LIVED TOGETHER.
FRANCES CARNEGIE BARNETT-APRIL 1, 1889- JULY 5, 1977
MARRIED JOSEPH BARNETT
CHILDREN –EDITH BARNETT AND HENRIETTA MARGARET BARNETT (PEGGY)
EDITH’S DAUGHTER- BONNIE RADDING HAYMSOM –BORN (1947)
PEGGY'S DAUGHTER-JACQUELINE KLOTZ
WIDOWED PRIOR TO 1930
CHILDREN- ETHEL KORN -BORN est- (1913) DIED (2013) IRVING KORN, AND GRACE KORN
ROSE CARNEGIE APISDORF-
MARRIED BERNHARD APISDORF
CHILDREN- HAROLD CARNEGIE APISDORF-BORN (1912) MARRIED JUDY (SHERR) APISDORF. DIED (2000) CLAIRE CARNEGIE APISDORF-LAUX WHO MARRIED DAVID LAUX AND IRVING APISDORF WHO MARRIED ABIGAIL
HAROLD’S SON- PETER
PETER APISDORF- MARRIED GEORGINA
TWO CHILDREN -WENDY AND PEDRO
CLAIRE’S SON- MICHAEL-MARRIED MARISOL
IRVING –DAUGHTERS- CAROL APISDORF-HARMON AND SUZANNE SON-DANA
CAROL APISDORF-HARMON- DAUGHTER- WENDY HARMON
MARRIED FRANK MEYERS
SON-HERMAN MEYERS –
MARRIED STELLA ABRAHAM- DIVORCED
CHILDREN- SON BIRTH NAME- EMIL WILLIAM MEYERS BORN SEPTEMBER 1, 1939
NAME AFTER ADOPTION-WILLIAM STEVENSON
BILL AND BRENDA WERE ADOPTED BY STELLA’S SECOND HUSBAND, HOWARD STEVENSON
BILL’S DAUGHTERS- LAURA AND ANDREA BRENDA’S SON’S BRIAN AND BRADLEY
Shoshana Answered Questions
Curiouser and curiouser, said Alice...
No, I never learned the name of the "small village outside Vienna" that
was always referred. My grandparents met in NYC although their
families were supposedly from the same small place. Who knows?
They say history is written by the victors and, I would add to that,
survivors who are interested in stories.
I'm unfamiliar with the spacing of the ketubah but I can probably guess
the answer. The Hebrew alphabet is a source of endless fascination to
me. All 24 letter can be made using the lines of the star of David. Each
letter has a numerical value, which is the basis of Kaballah. And in
most Hebrew newspapers and books, no vowels are added. (There
are actually no vowels in Hebrew, just a series of mostly dots and
some small lines added below, to the side of or above the consonants,
I don't know the rabbi. I'll look on the original whenever I come home
as see if it's clearer. I don't know the doctor who attended my birth
either. His name was Emmanuel Klemperer so I'm guessing he was
Jewish too. Of course, it was New York City and mothers pushed
their sons to become doctors.
On my grandmother's naturalization papers, they just list place of
origin as "Austria."
Okay, gotta go reconcile some bank statements now. Talk at you
I remember Uncle Toni sending me postcards from Paris twice a year. It was always so exciting.
I had always heard that he was the buyer when Aunt Hattie felt too ill to travel. That would have
been in the 40's and 50's. Before then, it was a very time-consuming journey by ship.
I've pressed the underline and can't seem to get it off.
Anyway, I think the Ellis Island records are public and I know I found records of Hattie
sailing in and out during the 1920's,
HAPPY 129th BIRTHDAY HATTIE!!!!
The timeline goes backward. Amy, I thought you'd like to see what Hattie may have seen...
Oldest and most incredible footage of New York City ever, including where the WTC would be built. With added maps carefully researched to show where the camera was. 28 shots of classic footage with a new twist and a new soundtrack. ... This collection of footage was taken between 1896 and 1905 and shows various places around New York City, all identifiable by location on a map.
Hattie’s New York City………..
For the Video, Please Click on the Link.
For the History of the Landmarks, Please Refer to my Update
1905-1896- Timeline is in Reverse……….
1905- Bryant Park- South of 42nd Street.- in 1839 construction began on the Crouton Distributing Reservoir The reservoir was a man-made four acre lake which was then surrounded by granite walls. Bryant Park was then built on the top of these walls The lake underneath became the water supply for the city of New York and it was an engineering marvel for the 19th century. It assured that the city was receiving fresh water. The reservoir was eventually torn down in 1900.
Hippodrome Theatre- This was a theatre in New York City from 1905-1939. The theatre had a seating capacity of 5,300. It had state of the art technology, including a rising glass water tank. One of the most famous acts that took place at the theatre was Harry Houdini’s disappearing elephant which took place in 1918, it also showcased circuses, musicals, traveling vaudeville acts and silent movies. The theatre was once at the top of it’s game, but suffered due to the Depression. They attempted to revive the theatre by bringing in operas, modern movies and sporting events to the complex. It eventually failed because of newer venues being built and attracting the former patrons. In 1952, the once grand theatre became the site of various office buildings and a parking garage.
Times Square- Where Broadway and 7th Avenue Merge-
Times Square- In 1872, this was the site of the carriage trade which made the area properous and well known Times Square was referred to as Longarce Square until 1904 when the New York Times newspaper bought an office building at the site. The famous New Years apple drop would first occur in 1907. In the 1890’s the area saw it’s very first electric lights. One the electric lights came, so did the upper class. New York City’s wealthiest citizens began to build theatres, restaurants and fancy cafés. They also decided to build skyscrapers, hotels and a subway station at Times Square. It was also the site of our nation’s first highway which reaches all the way to San Francisco, California.
In the 1910’s and the 1920’s Times Square was nicknamed Tenderloin because it was a most desirable location to visit. Hollywood Stars such as Irving Berlin, Fred Astaire and Charlie Chaplin loved to hang out in Times Square while out on the East Coast. Sadly though, at the same time, the undesirables were also discovering the area and began to congregate and spread crime and corruption that included prostitution, gambling and murder. With the onset of the Depression in the 1930’s Times Square became a dark and extremely dangerous area. This continued until the early 1990’s when the area was revitizled and cleaned up, security was increased, pornographic theatres were closed and undesirables were pressured to relocate. Again more tourist friendly attractions and upscale establishments were opened. The area was cleaned up and remodeled and returned to it’s former glory.
New York City Subway-14th Street Station Union Square- Follows the Route of Today’s East Side-IRT- Ends at Old Grand Central Station.- Underground Subway service began in New York City as early as 1904- Hattie was eighteen years old and working at Macy’s Department Store. The public transportation service first began in 1863 to assist patrons to get around the city. Fare cost five cents and 150,000 passengers.
Williamsburg Bridge- A suspenson bridge across the East River that connects the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancy Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn Queens Expressway. The bridge was first opened in 1903.
High Bridge-Offically called the Aqueduct Bridge. It is a steel arch bridge completed in 1848. It is the oldest bridge in New York City and connects the boroughs of the Bronx and Manhattan. The eastern end is located in the Bronx near the Western end of West 170th and the western end is located in Highbridge Park in Manhattan roughly parallel to the end of West 173rd Street. This Bridge has been closed since the 1970’s but is scheduled to reopen in 2015.
Elevated Railroad- In Manhatten and the Bronx……..Began in 1875.
1903-The Flatiron or Fuller Building on Broadway and 23rd Street- Still the windest place in New York- This skyscraper was built in 1902, and it reached twenty-two stories which was amazing for the time period that it was constructed in. It was called the flatiron because of it’s unusual shape. It resembled an early iron. The windest place in New York City. It was so windy there that people made bets on how long the structure would stand.
It still stands to this day.
Washington Square Park (Greenwich Village) Created in 1871- One of the best known public parks in New York City. It is very beautiful and located at the foot of Fifth Avenue. The park has some wonderful features, Washington Arch, a large fountain, children’s play areas, trees and gardens, a walkway path, a chess and scrabble playing area, park benches, picnic tables and two dog runs.
Washington Square Arch- This arch stands seventy-seven feet high. It was built in honor of George Washington in 1889 In celebration of the centennial of George Washington’s inauguration as President of the United States. In 1918, two statues of George Washington were built next to the arch. It was restored in the 1980’s.
Blackwell Island (Today it is known as Roosevelt Island.) It was nicknamed Walfare Island due to the number of hospitals located there. It lies between Manhattan Island to it’s west and the borough of Queens on Long Island. It is a part of the borough of Manhattan.
Lighthouse Park-Is a stone lighthouse built by New York City in 1872. It was added to The National Register of Historic Places on March 16, 1972. It became an official New York City landmark on March 23, 1976.
Construction of the Queensboro Bridge. The bridge used to get from Manhattan to Queens. Construction was completed in 1909. It connects the neighborhood of Long Island City in the borough of Queens with Manhattan.
Lower Manhattan on the Hudson River- Future Site of the World Trade Center-On March 25, 1911- the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in Greenwich Village took the lives of 146 garment workers which would eventually lead to great advancements in the city’s fire department, building codes and work place regulations. The area that once lead the world in industry, commerce and communication.
New York Aquarium (Would move to Coney Island in 1957)- The aquarium first opened it’s doors in 1896- making it the oldest, still operating aquarium in the United States.
Battery Park- A twenty-five acre public park located at the Battery, the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City, it faces New York Harbor. The Battery is named for the artillery batteries that were positioned there in the city’s early years to protect the settlement behind them.
1902- Madison Square- The original Madison Square was built in 1890 and relocated to a new location in 1925.
Highbridge in Northern Manhattan- The bridge is currently being restored. It is scheduled to reopen in 2015.
Washington Bridge- Connects Manhattan to the Bronx.
Wall Street-1792- The New York Stock Exchange was first created. The New York Stock Exchange is headquartered on Wall Street.
1901- Star Theatre- The Star Theatre was a popular 19th century theatre. It was demolished in 1901 .It was located on Broadway and 13th Street.
Fifth Avenue- It is known as the most expensive street in the world. Hattie Carnegie and her husband Major John Zanft moved to 1133 Fifth Avenue when they married in 1928
Historical Landmarks located on Fifth Avenue are as follows……
Empire State Building- 350 Fifth Avenue- Landmark Status- 6/24/86
Flatiron Building-175 Fifth Avenue-Landmark Status- 6/29/89
New York Public Library-Fifth Avenue and 42nd Street-Landmark Status-12/21/65
Rockefeller Center- 45 Rockefeller Plaza-Landmark Status-12/23/87
St. Patrick’s Cathedral-460 Madison Avenue-Landmark Status-12/8/76
1900- Central Park-Located in the central part of Manhattan It was first opened in 1857. It is composed of 843 acres of land. Central Park was first recognized as an historic landmark in 1962. It is the most visited and the most filmed park in the world.
1899- Dewey Arch on Madison Square- Demolished in 1900- The arch was a triumphal arch that stood from 1899-1900 at Madison Square in Manhattan. It was built for the parade in honor of Admiral George Dewey to celebrate his victory in the Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines in 1898. The arch had a sculpture at the top the depicted four horses drawing a ship. At night the arch was illuminated by electricity. After the parade the arch started to deteriorate. An attempt to have the arch rebuilt with more durable materials failed as had been done for the Washington Arch failed and it was demolished in 1900.
Downtown Manhattan- The southernmost part of the Island of Manhattan, it is the main island and the center of business and government in the city of New York, which actually originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624.
Old Madison Square Garden-(Now the New York Life Building.)
Built in 1925
Closed in 1968
Rooftop Restaurant- Stanford White, a prominent architect who built New York City landmarks that included the second Madison Square Garden and the Washington Arch was murdered in June of 1906 by millionaire Harry Kendall Thaw over White’s affair with his wife actress Evelyn Nesbitt leading to a court case that was dubbed the Trial of the Century by the city reporters.
After one hung jury, Harry Kendall was found Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity.
Morton House- (Today it is the Union Square Theatre.) The mansion belonged to Morton Freeman Plant, the son of railroad tycoon Henry B. Plant.
Blizzard of 1899- In New York City, It was fifteen degrees below zero, and there was over ten feet of snow There were snow flurries as far south as Fort Myers, Florida. Loss of lives, livestock and crops devastated the entire country.
Statue of Fredric Auguste-Bartholdi- The Statue of Liberty was born in 1886, ironically the same year as Hattie was. French Sculptor Fredric-Auguste-Bartholi (1834-1904) created the Statue of Liberty, the immense torch welding figure that rises out of New York Harbor as a welcoming beacon to the world. It was a gift from the French people to the American’s to celebrate one hundred years of Independence, even though it wasn’t completed until 1886
Brooklyn Bridge-the Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883. It is a hybrid cable suspension bridge and one of the oldest bridges in the United States. It spans the East River connects the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. The towers on the bridge are made of limestone, granite and Rosendale cement. The granite for the towers were quarried and shaped on Vinalhaven Island, Maine, under a contract with the Bodwell Granite Company, and delivered from Maine to New York by schooner. It was originally referred to as the East River Bridge or the New York and Brooklyn Bridge. It was formally named the Brooklyn Bridge in 1915. It was declared an historic landmark in 1964. On the first day of the bridge opening, a total of 1,800 vehicles crossed and 150,300 people walked across. Tragically twenty-seven people died while constructing the bridge.
1898- Bedloe’s Island- (Name was changed to Liberty Island in 1956.)- is a federally owned island in Upper New York Bay. It is the location of the Statue of Liberty. The island is an exclave of the New York City, borough of Manhattan, surrounded by the waters of Jersey City, New Jersey. Once known as Bedloe’s Island, it was renamed Liberty Island by an act of Congress in 1956. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.
1897-Sheepshead’s Bay Race Track- Racetrack was located east of Ocean Avenue, between X and Y Avenues- Located in Brooklyn, New York and owned by the Coney Island Jockey Club. The Race track was first opened in 1880. In 1915, the former horse racing track was converted for automobile racing. Due to financial difficulties in 1923, the land was sold and utilized for real estate. No trace of the former track survived.
Trolley System- First began in 1883. Ended in the 1940’s
33 East 17th Street, Center Publishing Company- Dates back to 1831.
Central Park Mounted Police- Began in 1871.
Bergen Beach- is a neighborhood near Coney Island- It is located in Brooklyn, New York.
Herald Square- A well known area of New York City located in Manhattan. This area is well-known as a place for the congregating of wealthy patrons. Herald Square is located at the intersection, of Broadway and 6th Avenue. It was named for the New York Herald Newspaper which has since gone out of business.
It is often referred to as a bow tie square. It consists of two sections. Herald Square is to the north and Greeley Square is to the south.
May 11, 1896- Oldest Surviving Footage of New York City was filmed at the Intersection of Broadway, 6th Avenue and 34th Street
References: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Visitors are saying this..............
This is just wonderful. We will make sure we give our Hattie Carnegie jewelry the respect it deserves.
HEIRLOOM BROOCHES & BAUBLES
I'm so happy for you Amy. The photo and pin are wonderful ... you must be "over the moon"!
Your dedication and love for Hattie are so apparent and has been recognized by her family. Great job!
Hi Amy...I think you were meant to have Hattie's brooch..and I know you will treasure it forever...
Really enjoyed the other new additions to your website too...Congrats...Best JudI
Remnants From the Past at Ruby Lane
The site looks great! There is so much great information there, it grew so much too. Congratulations, so happy for you!
It must have been a lot of hard work.
Estate & Vintage Jewelry, Fine Antiques & Collectibles
Proud Member JewelryRing, JewelryCollect & Costume Jewelry Collectors International
I am so pleased that Hattie's relatives are treating you with such kindness. Their thoughtfulness reminds me of the stories you told about how this pretty tough business woman extended herself in kindness to her fellow workers and employees.
It is wonderful to read that these special treasures are coming into your hands for you will enjoy them as no one else will.
Amy, It is wonderful that you are getting all this information from Hattie's family! I could open the addy, but it may be just my problem Norma
My mistake. I was able to open! Fabulous. Norma
Amy, I'm so glad for you that you have such a wonderful relationship with Hattie's family; the photo is beautiful and I wonder if you will sleep at all tonight knowing that tomorrow will bring you something so special from her.
That is such exciting news. It really is a testament to how much the family loves and appreciates all that you are doing and their love for Hattie.
I am so happy for you, Amy. What a special, special gift.
Congratulations! I love how wonderful these amazing people have been! The way they gave been sharing so much with you, is a treat for us all!
I can't wait to see your brooch!!
I bet it will be amazing!
Thank you for sharing!
Big Hugs Amy!
Proud Member of Jewelry Ring
Collector of ALL types of antique and vintage jewelry.
I now sell on Etsy and Ebay!
This is the most wonderful thing!!! What a huge accomplishment for you! And to be so generously welcomed into the family....
Congratulations is an understatement!!!
& Private Collector
Congrats, well deserved.
Linda in MPLS
Amy we are all so very happy for you...you will have to send a picture of the brooch to us when you receive it..what a special treasure for you...Smiles Judi
Remnants From the Past at Ruby Lane
Respected Member Jewelry Ring
Oh My !!!!!!
That is truly something. I can well see how you must be literally "over the moon" with excitement.
So am I reading it right that your website is about HC her jewels and life etc ?
If so, I would love to look at it. I know vertually nothing about her. I did have a letter 'A' necklace I sold which was signed and engraved with her full name. Always meant to find out more but never did.
Maybe you could post the link? Thanks.
Judy in England
Amy, that's fabulous! Please be sure to share them with us!
and follow me on Facebook by becoming a fan
That's so amazing! I can't believe that she even has all of the papers. I would love to see the copies when you receive them. Someone must have really taken care to keep the family history alive.
I make Ketubot and I always enjoy seeing the very old ones. Also when my Father passed away I found his papers from the French underground. I couldn't even believe that my parents had managed to keep them.
I've always wanted to tell you how wonderful your Hattie Carnegie site is.
Sorry, I didn't introduce myself. I am more of a "lurker" on the JR site. I read and learn and when I can help I e-mail privately. I hope you received other replies. I have "met" several other Jewish JR members as well.
Sharing in your excitement,
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